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翻译理论与实践

        负责人:李力

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翻译理论与实践(1)讲义

Lecture 1 General Survey of Translation

1.1 The Definition of Translation

     As a biblical story explains, at one time the whole earth had only one language. People lived together and communicated with each other easily. One day, they came up with a bold idea: to build a tower named Babel, the top of which was high enough to touch heaven. God said, “Behold, they are one people, and they all have the same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them”; he reasoned that anything that they put their mind to would be possible. It was for this reason he confused their language and then they were scattered each to their own kind over the face of the earth and the project of building the tower was halted. Consequently, people had to translate in order to understand each other.

What do we mean by the word translation? Translation, in fact, has three distinguishable meanings for this word. It can refer to:

(1) translating: the process (to translate; the activity rather than the tangible object);

(2) a translation: the product of translating (i.e. the translated text);

(3) translation: the abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process.

Translation, being a generally acknowledged complex process, is hard to describe completely and thoroughly with a few words. Many famous translators and translation theorists have been studying the definition of translation from the views of linguistics, culture and intercultural communication since ancient times. The meaning of translation are changing constantly and are increasingly open to interpretations, so we should study translation more flexibly.

Definitions Given by Chinese Scholars

翻译是把一种语言文字的意义用另一种语言文字表达出来。 (现代汉语词典)

翻译是将一种文字之真义全部移至另一种文字而绝不失其风格和神韵。(吴献书,1949

翻译是用一种语言把另一种语言所表达的思维内容准确而完整地重新表达出来的语言活动。(张培基,1980

翻译的定义应该是:将一种语言传达的信息用另一种语言传达出来。 (蔡毅,1995

翻译是将一种语言所蕴含的意思用另一种语言文字表达出来的文化活动。(王克非, 1997

Definitions Given by Western Scholars

●  to turn into one’s own language or another language (翻译是翻成本族语言或另一种语言)(美国韦氏新大学词典)

● A good translation is one which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language as to be as distinctly apprehended and as strongly felt by a native of the country to which that language belongs as it is by those who speak the language of the original work. 好的翻译应该是把原作的长处完全地遗注到另一种语言,以使译入语所属国家的本地人能明白地领悟、强烈地感受,如同使用原作语言的人所领悟、所感受一样。(泰特勒,1790

● According to Catford, translation is “ the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL)”.(翻译的定义也许可以这样说:把一种语言(SL)中的篇章材料用另一种语言(TL)中的篇章材料来加以代替。)(卡特福德,1965

● According to Newmark, translation is “ a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language”(2001a:7). 通常(虽然不能说总是如此),翻译就是把一个文本的意义按作者所意想的方式移译入另一种文字(语言)

● Nida insists, “… translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (Nida,1969: 53)。(翻译就是在译入语中再现与原语的信息最切近的自然对等物,首先是就意义而言,其次是就文体而言)

1.2 Translation History in China

China has an over five thousand-year long history of human civilization and a three thousand-year history of translation. This paper is to provide a chronological review highlighting translation theory and practice in China from ancient to present times.

1.2.1 Translation Practice and Theory in Ancient China

1) The earliest translation activities in China date back to the Zhou dynasty. Documents of the time indicated that translation was carried out by government clerks, who were concerned primarily with the transmission of ideologies.

五方之民,言语不通,嗜欲不同。达其志,通其欲,东方日寄,南方日象,西方日狄,北方日译。”  《礼记·王制》

2) It was during the Han dynasty that translation became a medium for the dissemination of foreign learning. The Buddhist scriptures which were written in Sanskrit needed to be translated into Chinese to meet the need of Chinese Buddhists.

Famous translatorsAn Shigao(高世安), Lou Jiachen(娄迦谶), Zhi Liang (支亮), Zhi Qian(支谦)

3) During the two Jin dynasties, Southern dynasty and Northern dynasty, translation of Buddhist scripture was officially organized on a large scale in China. A State Translation School was founded for this purpose.

Famous translatorsDao An(道安)Kumarajiva(鸠摩罗什)Zhen Di(真谛)Seng You(僧佑)

1.2.2 Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty (This period was the first peak of translation in China.)

Famous translators: Translators in this period were mainly Buddhist monks. E.g, Xuan Zang(玄

奘)

1.2.3 Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty

From the Yuan dynasty to the Ming dynasty, the translation of sutras lost importance.

Ming dynasty: With the arrival of western Christian missionaries, China came into contact with Europe. To facilitate their relations with Chinese officials and intellectuals, the missionaries translated works of western science and technology as well as Christian texts assisted by Chinese officials. They also introduced the Chinese classics to the West.

Famous translators: Xu Guangqi (徐光启) , Yan Fu , Lin Shu

Yan Fu (1853-1921) was the most influential translator and translation theorist in this period. Yan was a cultural intermediary who, at a critical moment in history, sought to make European works of political and social science accessible to the people. His most influential work are the1898 translation of Thomas Henry Huxley’s Evolution and Ethics (《天演论》,1893). His list of translations includes Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776), published in Chinese in 1902, Herbert Spenser’s The Study of Sociology (《原富》,1872) and John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (《群己权界论》1859), both translations published in 1904, writings by Edward Jenks published in Chinese in 1904, Montesquieu’s The Spirit of the Laws (1748), J.S.Mill’s A System of Logic (1843), translated in 1905, and William Stanley Jevon’s The Theory of Political Economy (1878), translated in 1909.

The most famous of Lin Shu’s translation works are: La Dame aux Camelias(《巴黎茶花女遗事》), Uncle Tom’s Cabin(《黑奴吁天录》), David Copperfield(《块肉余生记》), and Hamlet《王子复仇记》.

1.2.4 Translation in Modern China

The May 4th Movement which was the starting point of the new democratic revolution in China opened a new chapter in history of translation in China. Translators in this period of time, by comparison with those during the late Qing dynasty, were more selective regarding source texts. The quality and quantity of literary translation greatly improved. Most of the world famous literary works, from both large and small nations, were translated into Chinese.

Famous translatorLin Yutang (林语堂), Lu Xun (鲁讯)Qu Qiubai(瞿秋白)

Practice: Translation of Chinese classics and poetry into English; Translation of Novels of other country into Chinese

1.2.5 Translation in Present China

1) Translation in China between 1949-1978

The founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 enabled translation to enter into a new era. Translation became a very important part of the national cultural and educational cause. National organizations for translators were established in order to protect the interests and benefits of translators.

Famous translatorFu Lei(傅雷),Qian Zhongshu(钱钟书)

Translation Practice:1) Large-scale translation: Marx and Lenin’s works. 2) In the 1950s: scientific and technical works to meet the demands of the national social and economic construction. 3) In the 1970s: translation of United Nations documents after China was restored to its rightful seat in the United Nations.4) Literary translation: separated from general translation in China in this period, and literary translators became a very important part of China’s literature and arts personnel.

1.3 The Assessment of Translation

The criteria of translation function both as the guiding principles for the translation process and as the standards for determining the quality of the translated works. The original text consists of two constituent ingredients: content and form. Translation criteria generally involve the treatment of these aspects.

1.3.1 Translation Criteria Put Forward by Famous Translators or Translation Theorists

Some well-known translators or translation theorists at home and abroad have put forward criteria to judge the quality of a translation.

*严复 (1853-1921):Triple Principle of Translation

(faithfulness): 忠实准确

(expressiveness}: 通顺流畅

(elegance): 文字古雅

Yan Fu put forward this “Three-character Guide” in his preface to the translation of T.H. Huxley’s book Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays(《天演论》译例言 1898): 译事三难信达雅。求其信己大难矣。顾信矣不达。虽译犹不译也。则达尚焉......

易曰修辞立诚。子曰辞达而已。又曰言之无文,行之不远。三者乃文章正轨。亦即为译事楷模。故信达而外,求其尔雅。此不仅期以行远已耳。实则精理微言。用汉以前字法句法,则为达易。用近世利俗文字,则求达难。往往抑义就词,毫厘千里。审择于斯二者之间,夫固有所不得已也。岂钓奇哉。......

Translation has to do three difficult things: to be faithful, expressive, and elegant. It is difficult enough to be faithful to the original, and yet if a translation is not expressive, it is tantamount to having no translation. Hence expressiveness should be required too.……

The Book of Changes says that the first requisite of rhetoric is truthfulness. Confucius says that expressiveness is all that matters in language. He adds that if one’s language lacks grace, it won’t go far. These three qualities, then, are the criteria of good writing and, I believe, of good translation too. Hence besides faithfulness and expressiveness, I also aim at elegance. I strive for elegance not just to make my translations travel far, but to express the original writer’s ideas better, for I find that subtle thoughts are better expressed in the vocabulary and syntax of pre-Han prose than those of the vulgar writings of today. Using the latter often leads to distortion of meaning, which, however slight, results in vast misunderstanding. Weighing the pros and cons, I opted for the former, as a matter of necessity, not trying to be different ……

Yan Fu’s first two criteria of being faithful to the original text in content and being expressive in translation are generally acceptable, but his interpretation of “elegance” has aroused plenty of criticism because, in his opinion, one has to resort to the vocabulary and syntax of pre-Han prose to achieve “elegance”. Yan Fu’s criteria are also controversial for his emphasis on the equal status of the three conflicing principles. Despite this, Yan’s criteria are still popular in China, but the interpretation of his criteria has changed. Nowadays to many translators,  “elegance” implies “the safe and sound preservation of the taste and shade of the original”(黄龙, 1988:90) or “运用读者所最乐于接受的文体, 使译文得以广泛流传,扩大影响”(劳陇,《翻译通讯》1983年第10).

*鲁迅

信(faithfulness)

顺(smoothness)

翻译必须有异国情调,就是所谓洋气。其实世界上也不会有完全归化的译文,倘有,就是貌合神离,从严辨别起来,它算不得翻译。凡是翻译,必须兼顾着两面,一当然力求其易解,一则保存着原作的丰姿,但这保存却又常常和易懂相矛盾:看不惯了。不过它原是洋鬼子,当然谁也看不惯,为比较的顺眼起见,只能改换他的衣裳,却不该削低他的鼻子,剜掉他的眼睛(《鲁迅全集》第6卷,48)

*林语堂

忠实{faithfulness)

通顺(smoothness)

(beautifulness)

翻译的标准问题,大概包括三方面。我们可依三方面的次序讨论。第一是忠实标准,第二是通顺标准,第三是美的标准。这翻译的三层标准,与严氏的译事三难,大体上是正相比符的。……我们并须记得这所包括的就是:第一、译者对原文方面的问题,第二、译者对中文方面的问题,第三、是翻译与艺术文的问题。以译者所负的责任言,第一是译者对原著者的责任,第二是译者对中国读者的责任,第三是译者对艺术的责任。三样的责任全备,然后可以谓具有真正译家的资格。(《论翻译》,林语堂名著全集,1995:306)

*傅雷:神似 (resemblance in spirit)

以效果而论,(文学)翻译应当像临画一样,所求的不在形似而在神似。(《高老头》重译本序,1951)

*钱钟书:化境 (reaching the acme of perfection)

文学翻译的最高境界是,把作品从一国文字转变成另一国文字,既能不因语文习惯的差异而露出生硬牵强的痕迹,又能完全保存原有的风昧,那就算得入于化境。十七世纪有人赞美这种造诣的翻译,比为原作的投胎转世”(the transmigration of soul), 躯壳换了一个,而精神姿致依然故我。换句话说,译本对原作应该忠实得以至于读起来不像译本,因为作品在原文里绝不会读起来像经过翻译似的。(《林纾的翻译》,1964)

*Alexander Fraser TytIer (泰特勒): Three Principles of Translation

Alexander F.Tytler,a famous British translation theorist, put forward the classical criteria in his Essay on the Principles of Translation(1790):

(1) The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work (译作应该完全传达原作的思想)

(2) The style and manner of writing in the translation should be of the same character with that of the original (译作的风格与笔调应当与原作保持一致)

(3) The translation should have all the ease of the original composition(译作应当和原作一样流畅).

Tytler further points out that the above-said three principles are arranged and ranked according to the order of their significance, and that, when they are not simultaneously attainable, the first should be held to at the sacrifice of the third principle, then the second .

*Eugene A. Nida (奈达)Functional Equivalence (功能对等)

Eugene A.Nida, a famous American translation theorist, put forward his recent interpretation of functional equivalence in his Language and Culture: Context in Translating(2001:87):

(1) A minimal, realistic definition of functional equivalence: The readers of a translated text should be able to comprehend it to the point that they can conceive of how the original readers of the text must have understood and appreciated it. (最低限度而又切合实际的功能对等定义:译文读者对译文的理解应当达到能够想像出原文读者是怎样理解和领会原文的程度).

(2) A maximal, ideal definition of functional equivalence: The readers of a translated text should be able to understand and appreciate it in essentially the same manner as the original readers did. (最高限度合乎理想的功能对等定义:译文读者应当能够基本上按照原文读者理解和领会原文的方式来理解和领会译文).

1.3.2 Criteria for Beginners of Translation

Despite the variety of opinions, two criteria are almost unanimously accepted, namely, the criterion of faithfulness/accuracy(忠实/准确) and that of smoothness(流畅). We may also take these two criteria as the principles of translation in general.

In our textbook, “faithfulness(忠实)” and “clearness and coherence” or “smoothness” (通顺) are proposed.

1) 忠实(faithfulness)

(1) By faithfulness, we mean translators should be faithful to the original contents. What’s more, the translators should express the original contents accurately and completely but should not change, distort(歪曲), omit, cut or add or cancel the original contents. The reasons for this may include: The contents usually refer to the facts, affairs, sceneries(景物)described, and the thoughts, ideas, standpoints, and the emotions when the authors are narrating, clarifying, and describing.

(2) By faithfulness, we also mean that the translators should keep the styles of the original works, inclusive of styles of the nations, styles of the age, styles of the language, and the personal language style of the author. For example, in Ernest Hemingway’s works, due to his experience as a war correspondent in reporting the two world wars and the Spanish Civil War, the sentences used in his works are very concise. If you are translating such works, using concise sentences may reflect the language style of such kind of works.

(3) Translators should not destroy or change or replace using his own the original styles. If the original works is written by using colloquial (spoken) style, the translation can not change it into written style. If the original works is written in vulgar(粗俗的) language, you can not translate it using elegant language. If the original works is rich in western cultural colors, you can not put eastern cultural color in your translation of the works.

Generally speaking, the translation should be similar to the original works in styles of the nations, styles of the age, styles of the language, styles of the cultures, and the personal language style of the author. Just as Luxun said, “Translation should keep the characteristics and styles of the original works”.

1. Dr. Mike Quinn has a research paper in hand.

原译:麦克 奎恩博士有一篇研究论文在手里。

改译:麦克 奎恩博士正在写一篇研究论文。

2Jane does not work hard because she wants to earn money.

误译:因为简想赚钱,所以才不下力。

改译:简并不是因为想赚钱才下力干的。

2) “Clearness and coherence” or “smoothness”(通顺)

By clearness and coherence or smoothness, we mean the translation should be clear, coherent or smooth, and easy for the readers to understand. Language used in the translation should be standard modern language. These phenomena should be excluded: translation sentence by sentence or word by word. Besides, the translation should be clear not only in the ideas, but also in structure and logic.

As a matter of fact, “faithfulness and smoothness” are actually the two sides of the same thing. If you are too faithful to the original, namely, you translate the original works sentence by sentence or word by word, the readers will have difficulties in understanding your translation. On the other hand, if don’t follow the contents or styles of the original works, instead, you add or cancel a lot of things of the original works, even though your translation is smooth, your translation is just adapted or meaningless.

Briefly speaking, in order to make the translation faithful and smooth, translators should have a thorough comprehension of the original first, and then express accurately the contents of the original in the target language. Thorough comprehension and accurate expression are not easy, but we have to learn to do so with the help of the criteria of translation, namely, faithfulness and smoothness.

1.3.3 Translation proficiency: the Requirements of the Teaching syllabus for the English Major (中国高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲对翻译教学的要求)

受教育部委托,高等学校外语专业教学指导委员会英语组于2000年制订了本大纲。

* 英语专业六级的翻译教学要求

初步了解翻译基础理论和英汉两种语言的异同,并掌握常用的翻译技巧,能将中等难度的英语篇章或段落译成汉语。译文忠实原文,语言通顺,速度为每小时250-300个英文单词;能将中等难度的汉语篇章或段落译成英语,速度和译文要求与英译汉相同。能担任外宾日常生活的口译。

* 英语专业八级的翻译教学要求

能运用翻译的理论和技巧,将英美报刊上的文章以及文学原著译成汉语,或将我国报刊、杂志上的文章和一般文学作品译成英语,速度为每小时速度为每小时250-300个英文单词;译文要求忠实原意,语言流畅。能担任一般外事活动的口译。

1.4 Translator’s Competence

A qualified translator has to be equipped with various aspects of accomplishment mastery(修养). Generally speaking, requirements for translators can be summarized as follows:

1) For the materials to be translated are selected from English books, papers and journals with extensive contents, topics, and themes. Translators should be good at the application of correct standpoints, viewpoints, and methods to help them to correctly analyze and thoroughly comprehend the contents of the original works. As we have mentioned, thorough comprehension is the premise of expression. Hence, when we are to translate something, we have to comprehend the contents of the original correctly with the help of correct standpoints, viewpoints, and methods.

2) Translators have to keep on improving the levels of both the foreign language and the target language (here refers to the Chinese language). Correct and thorough comprehension of the original contents and skillful application of the target language is the premise to guarantee the quality of the rendition(translation).

3) Translators should keep on absorbing various kinds of basic knowledge, including the history, geography, politics, military knowledge, diplomacy, economy, cultures, sciences, customs, and habits of the countries concerned. The more a translator knows about the above-mentioned knowledge, the better he or she can translate the original works correctly, accurately, and even perfectly.

要做好翻译工作一是要具备良好的政治素质,二是要具备好良好的业务素质。政治素质包括译者对待党和国家大政方针政策的正确了解和贯彻执行、严肃认真的工作态度和一丝不苟的工作作风;良好的业务素质指的是扎实的语言功底、出色的写作技能、丰富的文化知识以及过硬的翻译理论知识和熟练应用翻译技巧的能力。具体说来,这些业务素质至少包括以下四个方面的内容:

1 扎实的语言基本功。译者应具有较强的驾驭译出语和译入语的能力,能正确理解原文,熟练运用本族语。试举1例如下:

This large body of men had met on the previous night, despite the elements which were opposed to them, a heavy rain falling the whole of the night and drenching them to the skin.这一大群人头天晚上还是聚到了一起,尽管老天与他们作对,整夜下着倾盆大雨,大家被淋得浑身透湿。

(原文中的despite the elements which were opposed to them译作尽管老天与他们作对,读起来未免平板滞重、佶屈聱牙,如译作尽管天公不作美不仅传神达意,而且文字简练、十分得体。)

2 具有丰富的文化知识,熟悉以英语为母语的国家的诸如历史、宗教、政治、地理、军事、外交、经济、文艺、科学、风土人情、民俗习惯等方面的社会文化。这有助于正确理解原文,完美地表达原作所要传达的思想内容。例如:

It is a way, he says, of paying tribute to the rock’n’roll era that had a huge impact on him as a child. So why did the idea come off the backburner and on to paper and then celluloid? Celebrity burn-out is the answer. Hollywood’s man with the golden touch had had a string of box-office success, from Sleepless in Seattle to Toy Story and Apollo 13, and had won Oscars two years in succession, for Philadelphia and then Forrest Gump.他说这是颂扬那个给童年的他带来巨大影响的摇滚乐时代的一种方式。那么这个想法怎么会由一个不起眼的念头变成了文字,然后又变成了电影呢?答案是名人精疲力尽了。这位点石成金的好莱坞宠儿由《西雅图夜未眠》到《玩具故事》和《阿波罗13号》,获得了一连串的票房成功,并因《费城的故事》和随后的《阿甘正传》连续两年问鼎奥斯卡奖。

rock’n’roll [=rock and roll]一词于1951年因著名的电台音乐节目主持人艾伦·弗里德首次使用而流传开来。backburner次要地位;一时不重要的地位golden touch点金术Sleepless in Seattle, Toy Story, Apollo 13, PhiladelphiaForrest Gump是电影片名。Oscar是美国好莱坞电影奖。译者如不了解这些词语的文化含义就很难译好它们。)

3 熟悉翻译理论和常用技巧,善于灵活运用各种翻译技巧。例如:

They were sons of the men who had left their homes and taken to the mountains with their broad swords by their side.他们都是那些抛妻别子、身带大刀进深山的好汉们的后代。

(本例翻译时如不采取颠倒词序的方法,而译作他们是好汉们的后代,那些好汉们曾经抛妻别子、身带大刀进入深山,文气就弱多了。)

4 熟悉各种工具书。译者的记忆力和知识面终归是有限的,因此遇到问题就应该知道怎样去查找正确的答案,从哪本书中去寻找。这就要求他应该知道怎样使用各种工具书。常见的工具书有各种单语词典和双语词典、百科全书、史书等。译者应该熟悉这些工具书各自的特点和用法,在翻译时如遇到难题就可求助它们。

The slow wagons of that time, drawn by horses or oxen, were too expensive for moving heavy freight very far. 那时,靠马或牛拉德四轮货车速度慢,远距离运输大宗货物的费用过高。

    (查阅英文辞典会发现,heavy作为形容词,有greatin quantity “大量的意思,照此理解heavy freight 应译成大宗货物

     A lady with a dog was lit.一位太太喝得醉醺醺的,带着一条狗。

lit 在美国的Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th edition 中,作为形容词有这样一个意思:affected by alcohol: drunk

“Ellen, shut the window. I’m starving!” And her teeth chattered as she drunk closer to the almost extinguished embers. (Wuthering Heights) “艾伦,把窗子关上。我快冻死啦!她的牙齿在打战,一面蜷缩着身子,向快要熄灭的火炉靠拢些。

(结合语境,此处starve饿死无关,查COD发现该词有这样一个意思:intr. archaic or dial. perish with or suffer from cold

Today they’re making five and six dollars a week. Maybe you want a raise a family on that. Then you’ll be back here living with us again and I’ll be spporting two families in one. Well… over my dead body. 现在他们一星期才赚五六元钱。那点钱能养活一家人吗?以后你又会回到这儿来,重新和我们生活在一起,那我就得在一个家里抚养两家人。哼……休想!

CODLDOCE中都在body的条目中收录了这个成语。前者解释是:colloq. entirely without my consent;后者的释义是:spoken used to show that you are determined to prevent something from happening。无疑,这是一个口气很硬的表示拒绝的词语。)

 

Lecture 2 The Process of Translation

     Nida proposes his four basic processes in translating which consist of (1) analysis of the source text, (2) transfer from source to target language, (3) restructuring in the target language, and (4) testing of the translated text with persons who represent the intended audience.

     The analysis of the source text means a detailed treatment of both the designative and associative meaning of the lexemes, the syntax, and the discourse structures.

     The process of transfer involves the shift from in the source language to thinking in the target language which means the content has been “carried across”.

     The process of restructuring involves the organization of the lexical, syntactic, and discourse features of the transferred text so as to provide maximal comprehension and appreciation on the part of the intended audience.

     All three of the above-mentioned processes are going on at the same time and are largely below the level of consciousness. The testing of a translation is an essential part in that it expresses so quickly any problems which exist in a translation.

2.1 The Basic Process of Translation

     Generally speaking, we need to follow the basic process of translation which consists of (1) accurate comprehension, (2) adequate representation, and (3) revision.

2.1.1 Accurate Comprehension

     Accurate comprehension is a precondition for adequate representation, so attention should be attached to gaining accurate comprehension. The accurate comprehension may be gained through a good analysis of the ST which involves analyzing the meaning of the ST on different levels, with a focus on internal factors including cohesion and structural aspects and external factors such as the viewpoint of the speaker, narrator, or reader in terms of culture, attitude, time, and space, etc. Generally speaking, the stylistic, semantic, pragmatic, contextual and logical analysis need to be considered in a thorough text analysis.

1. Stylistic Analysis

     To understand the ST, we need know in what kind of style it is written. By style, we mean a variety which correlates with the number and nature of the addresses and the performer’s relationship to them. Styles vary along a scale which may be roughly characterized as formal or informal. Martin Joos suggested five styles: frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate. Catford holds that as with registers, so styles, translatability depends on “the existence of an equivalent style in the TL”

     Frozen style is used by professional speakers, for public address. Sentences are constructed with the utmost care, and elaborate rhetorical devices are used. The words or phrases are generally very precise, often learned words of Latin origin.

     Formal style is used in lectures, scholarly talks, or planned speeches.

     Consultative style is used for conducting most business matters, but not among close friends. The words used are generally those that come to mind without too much deliberation.

     Casual style is used for situations in which no social barriers are felt by the parties involved, such as close friends in informal situations. Sentences are often short and clipped, with auxiliary verbs and pronouns frequently left out. Colloquialisms and slang are also fairly common.

     Intimate style is used among members of the family or very close friends. Intimate language is spontaneous, with hardly any constraint. Such language often assumes shared knowledge between participants and therefore is at times unintelligible to outsiders.

     Compare the following sentences:

1) Visitors should make their way at once to the upper floor by way of the staircase.

2) Visitors should go up the stairs at once.

3) Would you mind going upstairs at once?

4) Time you all went upstairs, now.

5) Up you go, chaps!

2. Semantic Analysis

     The semantic analysis is very important for a translator to make an accurate and smooth translation. The meaning of a word is its use in the language, not only its definition in the dictionary. A dictionary does not require or forbid a particular sense of a word, but records the uses that have been found for it. Now and then, a word is in the process of acquiring a new sense or somewhat extending from its usual sense. The dictionary definitions is, for the most part, a record of the denotation of a word, and often cannot give its connotation. Words do not have meanings; people have meaning for words. So, it is necessary to understand the meaning of words accurately and use words effectively to express the original ideas in the target language.

1Conceptual Meaning and Associative Meaning

seat oneself in a wooden chair     坐在木椅里

accept a university chair          同意在大学里执教

chair the board meeting                主持董事会

condemned to the chair                被处电刑

2Sense Relations

George made great progress at school.乔治的学习有了很大进步。

Let us be great friends. 让我们做好朋友吧。

He has the reputation of being a blood-sucker.他是个臭名昭著的吸血鬼。

She has made a reputation for herself through hard work. 她勤奋工作为自己赢得了声誉。

3)要注意词语的搭配关系、逻辑关系和上下文关系。例如:

He wrote his 12th novel at the ripe age of 85. 85岁高龄时完成了第12部小说。(这里的ripe不作mature解,而是advanced in years之意。)

The custom had its spring in another country.这种风俗起源于别的国家。(这里的spring的确切含义为起源。)

3. Contextual Analysis

     To gain the accurate comprehension of the ST, therefore, we need know the necessity of making a contextual analysis. We must understand the meaning of a word from the words that come before or after it, as well as the relevant cultural background.

1)分析一词与周围词的关系。

Today a politician without elbows is as lost as a politician without principles.

elbows这里意为勇气,指总统候选人应有的品格,该句译为:如今一个没有勇气的政治家就像一个没有原则的政治家一样无所作为。

2)确认一短语是否是一个语义整体。

例如,下述话语中的a good table就有其独立的含义,它受上下文的制约,有其特定的含义。

—— “I don’t know what you do with your brass,” said Mr. Scurridge.

—— “I spend it on you,” she said. “Always a good table, you must have. Never anything short.”

—— 不知道你掖着臭钱干什么用,史卡力先生问。

——供你吃喝呀!她回答道。你总是一定要吃好喝好,缺一点儿也不行。

3)确认一个句子是否是一个独立的语义单位。

Friendship cannot stand always on one side.  友谊总是双方的事。

Far from eye, far from heart. 别久情疏。

He has stolen a march on me.他比我抢先了一点。

4. Pragmatic Analysis

     Both semantics and pragmatics are concerned with meaning, but they are different. Semantics traditionally deals with meaning as a dyadic relation as in “What does X mean” while pragmatics deals with meaning as a triadic relation as in “What did you mean by X”. Thus, meaning in pragmatics is defined relative to a speak or user of the language, whereas meaning in semantics is defined purely as a property of expression in a given language, in abstraction from particular situations, speakers or hearers.

1)把讲话人当作言语行动的参与者。

讲话人不仅传达信息,而且还表达一定的态度:赞成或反对,请求

或命令,威胁或劝诱,褒扬或贬抑,推荐或命令,等等。其中有的可见诸字面,有的则隐藏于字里行间。例如:

委婉请求    

Would you mind passing me the salt?

许诺             

I shall return the book tomorrow.

警告             

Say that again and I’ll part with you once for all. 你再这样说,我就跟你永远分手

褒与贬         

You are stubborn. He is pig-headed. I am strong-willed.你很执拗,他是头犟驴,而我却意志坚强。

2)弄清讲话人的意图,进而决定表达方式。

Harry is a professor, but can’t spell.哈利是教授,奇怪的是不会拼写。(but这里表示惊奇,甚至遗憾。)

And you talked to him this way after all he had done for you.人家帮了你那么多忙,你怎么竟这样跟人家讲话呢?(and的使用频率很高,含义也很高,这里的and表示惊讶、不满或气愤。)

2.1.2 Adequate Representation

     Adequate representation is the end of accurate comprehension. The target test should be faithful to the original and reads naturally in target language. The process of expression is in fact that of selecting or looking for suitable signs to represent the meaning of the source lanuage message.

The winds of November were like summer breezes to him, and his face glowed with the pleasant cold. His cheeks were flushed and his eyes glistened; his vitality was intense, shining out upon others with almost a material warmth. 十一月的寒风,对他就像夏天吹拂的凉风一样。舒适的冷空气使他容光焕发,两颊通红,两眼闪光。他生气勃勃,叫别人感到是一团炙手的火。(英语material warmth字面意思是物质的温暖,这里具体译作一团炙手的火言明意清,让人一看就懂。)

My dear girls, I am ambitious for you, but not to have you make a dash in the world-marry rich men merely because they are rich, or have splendid houses, which are not homes because love is wanting..亲爱的姑娘们,我对你们期望很高,可并不是叫你们在世上出人头地-要你们去嫁给富人,仅仅因为他们有钱,有奢华的住房,缺少爱情的话,豪华的住房算不得上家。(英语ambitious既可表示雄心壮志的意思,也可表示野心勃勃的意思,这里选用褒义词期望很高翻译比较妥当。)

It was morning, and the new sun sparkled gold across the ripples of gentle sea.清晨,初升的太阳照着平静的海面,微波荡漾,闪耀着金色的光芒。(英语the ripples of the gentle sea译成汉语时在结构上作了调整,这样译文念起来意思清楚,行文漂亮。)

The sea was wonderfully calm and now it was rich with all the color of the setting sun. In the sky already a solitary star twinkled.大海平静得出奇,晚霞映照的绚丽多彩,天空已有孤星闪烁。(英语原文两句译成汉语合为一句。)

表达时还应注意避免翻译腔、过分表达和欠表达。所谓翻译腔,就是指译文不符合汉语语法和表达习惯,诘屈聱牙,晦涩难懂。例如:

To appease their thirst its readers drank deeper than before, until they were seized with a kind of delirium. 为了解渴,读者比以前越饮越深,直到陷入了昏迷状态。

这个句子的译文死抠原文形式,死抠字典释义,翻译腔严重,让人难以明白其意思,可改译为:读者为了满足自己的渴望,越读越想读,直到进入了如痴如醉的状态。

理解和表达是翻译过程中两个各自不同但又密切相关的阶段。也就是说,在理解的基础上进行表达,在表达的过程中加深理解。理解要尽量准确,表达应力求充分。两个方面相互促进、相互补充,这样整个翻译过程才成为一个完整的统一体。

所谓充分表达,即利用对目的语的驾驭能力,完全而恰如其分地表达原文的思想内容、立场感情和风格笔调。例如:

Reports of new successes keep pouring in. 捷报频传。

We excel at making a living but often fail in making a life.我们善于谋生,却往往不会营造生活。

He went on standing against the rail; watching her, as she was taken to the opposite bank of the river in a little boat.他一直倚着栏杆,目送她坐着小船划向河对岸。

说到充分表达,要防止两种倾向:过分表达(Over-representation)和欠充分表达(Under-representation)。

所谓过分表达,即不顾原文本意如何,而任意添枝加叶。例如:

He was on his way to China again.他又风尘仆仆地踏上了去中国的旅程。

其中风尘仆仆地五个字是多余的。

He sold hard-to-get items.  他行贿受贿,兜售紧销商品。

其中行贿受贿四个字属无中生有,兜售一般被视为贬义词,而原文没有明显的贬褒之分。建议改译:他出售紧俏商品。

所谓欠充分表达,即或任意删减,或不问作者感情态度,或不计文体风格,等等。例如:

When we were in port, my crew was responsible for moving, installing and modifying the items to be tested the next week. To compound the problems, our good ship Wyoming was declared to be unsafe.

原译:进港后,船员们负责搬运、安装、调试仪器和设备,迎接下星期的试验。就在此关键时刻,我们的怀俄明号被宣布为不安全。

原文有两处漏译:To compound the problems(使问题复杂化)和good(好端端的)。建议改译:入港后,舰上的官兵们忙着搬运、安装、调试仪器和设备,迎接下星期的试验。就在此时麻烦事来了:上级宣布我们这艘好端端的怀俄明号为不安全舰只。

2.1.3 Revision

     A careful review of the text, with special emphasis on accuracy and consistency of rendering is always necessary. We may examine the original to see if the translation is faithful to the ST, and then read the translation to see if it is natural and idiomatic in target language. According to Newmark, revision is a technique and we should spend 50% ~ 70% of the time we take translating on revision, depending on the difficulty of the text.

2.2 Literal Translation and Liberal Translation

Generally speaking, comprehension is of foremost importance, and expression is the natural consequence of thorough comprehension. However, in the practice of translation we may find that now and then some words in their usual senses are very difficult to deal with because of the disparity between the English and the Chinese languages. In this case, we have to resort to some special means of translation. Literal translation and free translation are two useful approaches in dealing with such awkward situations.

2.2.1 Literal Translation

The so-called literal translation, superficially speaking, means “not to alter the original words and sentences”; strictly speaking, it strives “to keep the sentiments and style of the original”. It takes sentences as its basic units and takes the whole text (discourse) into consideration at the same time in the course of translation. Furthermore, it strives to reproduce both the ideological content and the style of the original works and retains as much as possible the figures of speech. There are quite a lot of examples of successful literal translation that have been adopted as idiomatic Chinese expressions. For example, crocodile’s tears, armed to the teeth, chain reaction, gentlemen’s agreement, and so on. Similarly, some Chinese idioms also find their English counterparts through literal translation. For example, 纸老虎 (paper tiger), 一国两制 (one country, two systems ), and so on.

     Here are some more examples:

1. Diligence is the mother of good luck.勤勉是幸运之源。

2. No news is good news. 没消息就是好消息。

3. A stitch in time saves nine. 小洞不补大洞吃苦/一针不缝九针难补,及时处理事半功倍。

4. One swallow does not make a summer. 独燕不成夏。

5. Skill and patience will succeed. 技巧和耐心会帮助人成功。

6. Health is not valued till sickness comes. 有病方知健康贵。

7. Do not cut down the tree that gives you shade. 靠近大树好乘凉。

8. Waste not, want not. 勤俭则不贵。

9. Success belongs to the preserving. 坚持到底必获胜利。

10. Stuff today and starve tomorrow. 今天大吃大喝,明天忍饥挨饿。

某些英语习语已为汉语接纳,丰富了汉语的表达方式。

例如:

Time is money.时间就是金钱。

Rome was not built in a day.罗马不是一天建起来的。

ivory tower象牙塔(象牙塔现在多指高等学府,本意为忽视现实社会丑恶悲惨之生活,而自隐于其想中美满之境地以从事创作的,后用以比脱离现实生活的文艺家的小天地、学者的现实社会、大学的究室等。象牙塔只是用来描述新娘美丽的颈项。这个词后来被逐渐运用到社会生活的各方面,主要是指与世隔绝的梦幻境地、逃避现实生活的世外桃源、隐居之地。在汉语中,象牙塔的外延涵义主要是指比喻脱离现实生活的文学家和艺术家的小天地。大学、研究院正是这种地方。)

turn over a new page翻开新的一页。

shed crocodile’s tears流下鳄鱼的眼泪。

First Lady第一夫人。

2.2.2 Liberal / Free Translation

Liberal / Free translation is an alternative approach which is used mainly to convey the meaning and spirit of the original without trying to reproduce its sentence patterns or figures of speech. This approach is most frequently adopted when it is really impossible for the translator to do literal translation. For example:

·Adam’s apple  喉结

·at sixes and sevens  乱七八糟

·It rains cats and dogs.大雨滂沱

·Don’t cross the bridge till you get to it.不必担心过早。(不必自寻烦恼)

·Do you see any green in my eye? 你以为我是幼稚可欺的吗?

The above illustrations can not be translated literallyotherwisethe Chinese rendition would make nonsense at alllet alone the original meaning.

Literal translation and free translation, however, are relative concepts. In other words, there is no absolute “literal”nor entirely “free” version in the practice of translation, and overemphasizing either of them would result in ridiculous consequences. Let’s scrutinize the following two practical cases.

Original English 1

I love tiger cat, … British movies on public televisionfluffy blouses, the nuclear family,  (Helen SnowMy China Years)

Chinese Version A:

我爱虎猫, …… ()电视上放映的英国影片,有绒毛的短衫,核心家庭,……

Chinese Version B:

我喜欢豹猫, …… 喜欢公共电视台播放的英国电影,喜欢蓬松、柔软的棉毛衫,喜欢一夫一妻制的家庭,……

Comment:

Apparently, these two Chinese versions are far from being perfect. Other things aside, the rendering of the phrase nuclear family poses a serious problem of representation. Version A renders “the nuclear family” as “核心家庭” by means of literal translation. However, this version is too stiff, therefore it fails to convey the original meaning to the Chinese reader—for most Chinese, they have hardly any idea what “核心家庭” really means. Version B adopts the approach of free translation and puts it into “一夫一妻制evidently it goes too far and distorts the author’s original intention, and in doing so, the translator abuses the practice of free translation. In fact, the nuclear family has nothing to do with either of the versions. A close examination of its definition in an English-English dictionary sheds light on this phrase: nuclear family, a family group that consists only of father, mother and children. Therefore, the proper rendering of the phrase should be words to this effect: a cozy small family, namely, the Chinese equivalent “小家庭”.

Original English 2 :

Mao Tse-tung was well bred, but inside he was made of steel, of hard resistance, of tough tissue—the kind of tissue the Boxers thought they had by magic, and bared their solar plexuses to foreign bullets.(ibid. )

Chinese Version A:

毛泽东有很好的教养,内部是钢,有坚强的抗力,是坚韧的材料制成的。这是义和团设想的由于神力具有的,可以把腹部袒胸给外国人的子弹的那种材料。

Chinese Version B:

毛泽东教养有素,精神支柱铁铸钢打,不怕高压,是由坚韧的组织构成的。这种组织,就是义和拳认为他们通过魔法得到的那种组织袒胸露体,刀枪不入。

Comment:

The word “tissue” can hardly be rendered into Chinese either in literal translation or free translationnor could the metaphor “inside he was made of steel” be properly rendered without grasping the essence of the whole sentence. Howeversince there is no corresponding expressions in Chinese, the translators tackle them according to their own understanding. Inversion A”tissue” is freely rendered as “材料” (material)while version B literally as”组织”(organic tissue)—both fail to convey the original meaning and attitude of the writer. By adopting translation skills such as amplification, omissionconversion and restructuringwe may translate the original English sentence as follows:

Revised Version:

毛泽东外表温文尔雅,但内心深处却钢铸铁打,既坚韧,又抗压—在他的身上可以看到当年义和团自信所具有的那种神力,面对洋枪洋炮也敢袒胸露怀。

     Here are some more examples:

1. Every life has its roses and thorns. 每个人生都是欢乐和痛苦相随。

2. Every tub must stand on its own bottom. 人要自主必须独立。

3. Love lives in cottages as well as in courts. 爱情不分贫贱与高贵。

4. John is a bull in a China shop. 行为粗鲁笨拙。

5. Every family is said to have at least one skeleton in the cupboard. 衣橱藏骷髅, 家丑家家有。

6. It is raining cats and dogs. 正在下倾盆大雨。

7. Every dog has his day. 凡人皆有得意时!

8. Dog does not eat dog. 同类不相残、同室不操戈

9. For John, to disclose his long-held privacy means to strike the heal of Achilles. 对约翰来讲,泄露他长期保守秘密的隐私无异于击中了他的致命弱点。

10. The man who waters his grass after a good rain is carrying coals to Newcastle. 刚下一场及时雨,那人却又为草坪浇水,真是把煤运到纽卡斯尔,多此一举。

From the above analysis, we come to the conclusion that there is no obvious distinction between literal translation and free translation, nor is it necessary to distinguish one from the other. The key point for a translator to grasp is to comprehend the original thoroughly, and then put it into idiomatic Chinese. In the process of translation, specific approaches such as literal or free translation may be of some help, but we should avoid the two extremes. In the application of literal translation, we should endeavor to rid ourselves of stiff patterns and rigid adherence to translation rules, trying to be flexible; while in the practice of free translation, we should be cautious of subjectivity, avoiding groundless affirmation or arbitrary fabrication. Whatever the circumstances, we may alternate or combine these two approaches when it is necessary.

     Now let’s check the following examples:

Only three customers remained in the bar. 酒吧间只有三个顾客还没有走。(不译:还留着还呆在那里

I’ll be here for good this time.  这一次我再也不走了。(不译:永远在此呆下去

Please keep the fire burning when I’m out. 我不在家的时候,请别让炉子灭了。(不译:我外出时,请让炉子继续烧着

“Wait, he is serious.” “等等,他不是说着玩儿的。(不译:等等,他是认真的。

Pressing down the button of the alarm-clock, he curled up for a last warm moment under the bedclothes. 他把闹钟的按钮按下,蜷缩在被子下面,享受最后一刻的温暖。(不译为温暖的一刻

“Now, Clara, be firm with the boy!” “听我说,克拉拉,对这孩子可不能心软。(不译:”...对这孩子要坚定

Mr. Oakhust drew the youthful speculator behind the door, and thus addressed him: “Tommy, you’re a good little man, but you can’t gamble worth a cent. Don’t try it over again.”  奥赫斯特先生把这个想试试运气的年轻人(不译为年轻的试运气者)拉到后门,对他这样说:汤姆,你这小伙子挺不错,可是你对赌博一窍不通,以后别再尝试了。

 The scientific and the metaphysical tempers still pursue their opposite courses.

(译文一)科学和形而上学的性质仍然遵循着对立着的路程。

(译文二)科学和形而上学仍然分道扬镳,大异其趣。

He had fought like a demon every inch of the way against poverty and discouragement. (A.W. Long)

(译文一)在为战胜贫困和沮丧的道路上,他像恶魔般地一步步奋力战斗着。

(译文二)他意志与毅力超人,终生不渝地与贫困及颓丧作顽强的斗争。

Their strength lay only in the lack of consciousness on the part of

(译文一)他们的力量在于人民缺乏觉悟。

(译文二)他们之所以显得强大,只是因为人民还没有觉悟起来。

For many years, his was the only kindness she ever knew, the only friendship that solaced in any way that feeble, lonely soul.

(译文一)多年来,只有他的善心才是她惟一能够领受到的,只有他的情谊才使这个孤苦懦弱的人得到一点安慰。

(译文二)多年来,只有他对她发些善心,使这个孤苦懦弱的人得到一点安慰。

She begged the old gentleman to give the money to dear Rebecca, who must want it, while she lacked for nothing.

(译文一)她请求老人把钱给真正需要钱的利蓓加,而她自己什么也不缺。

(译文二)她求老人把钱送给利蓓加,因为她自己什么都有,利蓓加才真正需要钱。

It would save time, but might be considered irregular by the Germans, they are sticklers for form.

(译文一)这会省时间,但是会被讲究形式的德国人认为不雅观。

(译文二)这样当然节省时间,可是德国佬会认为很不雅观,他们最讲究形式。

She bathed herself in the warmth of his feeling, which was as a grateful blaze to one who is cold.

(译文一)她沐浴在一个挨冷受冻的人喜逢熊熊炉火那样,他的感情的温煦之中。

(译文二)她只是沐浴在他的感情的温煦之中,像是一个挨冷受冻的人喜逢熊熊的炉火。

 ”It is a one-horse palanquin,” said the old gentleman, who was a wag in his way.

(译文一)那就是一匹马拉的轿子,爱说俏皮说的老先生说道。

(译文二)老先生说话喜欢俏皮,答道:便车就是一匹马拉的轿子。

 As for Mr. Sedley’s jokes, Rebeoca laughed at them with a cordiality and perseverance which not a little pleased and softened that good-natured gentleman.

(译文一)至于赛特立先生的笑话,利蓓加放开笑个不停,这使好性子的老先生大为高兴。

(译文二)每逢赛特立先生说笑话,利蓓加便笑个不停,好像从心里乐出来,好性子的老先生不由得又得意又欢喜。 

The thought that she would be separated from her husband during his long and dangerous journey saddened Mrs. Brown.

(译文一)在她丈夫那漫长而危险的旅途时间内她将和他分离的这个思想是布朗太太悲伤。

(译文二)布朗太太一想到丈夫踏上那漫长而危险的旅途,而在此期间,她又不能跟他在一起,心里不禁感到难过。

The paralysis of the mind and will of grown-up men, raised as Christians, supposedly disciplined in the old virtues, boasting of their code of honour, courageous in the face of death on the battle fields, is astonishing.

(译文一)这些成年人都是为作基督教徒培养起来的,也曾受过旧道德的训练,夸耀他们荣誉的典范,在战场上死亡面前毫不畏惧,而他们的心灵和意志如此麻痹,实在令人惊讶。

(译文二)这些成年人都是作为基督教徒培养成人,也曾受过旧道德的熏陶,以爱惜荣誉自豪,在战场上视死如归,然而他们精神上和意志上的麻木不仁竟至于此,不能不令人惊讶。

 If she did, she need not coin her smiles so lavishly; flash her glances so unremittingly; manufacturing airs so elaborate, graces so multitudinous.

(译文一)如果她当真爱他的话,她就用不着这样过分地装出笑容,不断地送她的媚眼,费尽心计装腔作势,摆出许多文雅的姿态。

(译文二)如果她当真爱他的话,她就根本用不着这样满面堆笑,滥送秋波,煞费苦心地故作姿态,装出许多斯文模样。

If they could not see the Winter Palace with their own eyes, they could dream about it--as if in the gleaming they saw before--as if there above the horizon of European civilization was towering the silhouette of Asian civilization.

(译文一)如果不能亲眼目睹圆明园,人们就在梦中看到它。仿佛它在遥远的暮色中隐约眺见的一件前所未知的惊人杰作,宛如亚洲文明的轮廓崛起在欧洲文明的地平线上一样。

(译文二)如果他们不能目睹圆明园的丰姿, 那么他们也能在梦幻中身临其境;他们仿佛在瞑瞑之中见到一件使人叹为观止的艺术杰作,宛如在欧洲文明的大地上巍然展现出一幅亚洲文明的剪影。

He was his own sarcophagus, a bold and infallible diplomat who was always beating himself disgustedly for all the chances he had missed and kicking himself regretfully for all the errors he had made. He was tense, irritable, bitter and smug. (Catch-22)

(译文一)他自己是雕刻精美的石棺,常常因为自己失去的所有机会厌恶地训斥自己,或者为了自己犯的全部错误悔恨地埋怨自己,他紧张,易激怒,爱发牢骚,而且很自满。

(译文二)他是一个作茧自缚的人,既是一位勇敢的、一贯正确的外交家,又常常因为屡次坐失良机而痛骂自己,或者为了自己所犯的全部错误而自怨自艾,懊恼不已。他神经紧张,心情烦躁,牢骚满腹,可又自命不凡。

 North Richmond Street, being blind, was a quiet street except at the hour when the Christian Brothers’ School set the boys free. An uninhabited house of two storeys stood at the blind end, detached from its neighbours in a square ground.

The other houses of the street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces. (James Joyce: Araby)

(译文一)北里奇蒙大街是一条死胡同。因此,在每天基督教兄弟学校放学以前,它总是静悄悄的。死胡同的尽头有一所无人居住的两层楼房。它坐落在一块四方形的场地上,与其它房屋之间有着一定距离。街上其它房屋都呈棕褐色。也许意识到它们里边居住的都是一些体面人物,它们都以冷静严肃的目光相互凝视着。

(译文二)北里奇蒙特大街的一头是堵死的,除了基督教友学校放学那段时间外,平时街上都很寂静。街的尽头是座无人居住的两层楼房,它同相邻的房子隔开,坐落在一块方地上,街上别的房子,仿佛自知住着体面的人家,都沉着棕色的脸,相互对峙着

This was the last straw. I was very young: the prospect of working under a woman constituted the ultimate indignity. 我再也无法忍受了。我当时很年轻,我要在一个女人手下工作,这对我简直是最大的侮辱。

“This was the last straw.”用的是直译法,后面的部分用的是直译法。这是典型的直译与意译并用。

He drinks in all the words and expressions which come to him in a fresh, ever-bubbling spring. 他全部吸收了那些如同一股清新的、不断涌出的泉水般流向他的词语和表达方式。

这个句子中前半部分用了直译法,后边的”come to him in a fresh, ever-bubbling spring”用了意译法。

2.3 Domestication and Foreignization

2.3.1Domestication

由于文化上的差异,英译汉时有时直译原文就会使译入语读者感到费解,甚至误解。这时,就有必要借用汉语中意义相同或相近、且具有自己鲜明文化色彩的表达法对原文加以归化。归化翻译法常用于处理某些英语成语、典故、形象词语等一类文化色彩较浓的表达方式。恰倒好处地归化可以使译文地道简洁、生动活泼,便于译入语读者理解和接受。例如:

as timid as a hare 胆小如鼠

(在西方文化中,兔子是胆小的象征,而在我国,兔子却象征着机警敏捷。人们常说:静若处子,动若脱兔。鼠在我国才是胆小的象征,所以翻译时直接加以归化。)

at a stone’s throw一箭之遥

wet like a drown rat 湿如落汤鸡

as stupid as a goose 蠢得像猪

as stubborn as a mule 犟得像牛

seek a hare in a hen’s nest 缘木求鱼

as dumb as an oyster 守口如瓶

lead a dog’s life 过着牛马一样的生活

cry up wine and sell vinegar 挂羊头,卖狗肉

put back the clock 开倒车

talk horse 吹牛

kill the goose that lays the golden eggs 杀鸡取卵

drink like a fish 牛饮

(1) Once the wife of a parson, always the wife of a parson. 嫁鸡随鸡,嫁狗随狗。

(2)One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy. 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。

(3) I was limp as a dish rag. My back felt as through it had been beaten with wires. 我软得像一团棉花,脊背疼痛得好像被钢丝抽打过一样。

(原文中limp as a dish rag,如直译为像洗碟布一样柔软,既不地道,又让人产生一种较恶心的感觉,不如用汉语中常说的软得像一团棉花加以归化。)

(4) Everybody said how well the new Secretary was doing, but old Mr. Carr said shortly, “Yes. New brooms sweep clean.” 人人都说新任秘书干得好,但卡尔老先生却简慢地说:新官上任三把火。

(原文new brooms sweep clean的字面意思是新扫把扫得干净,比喻新任职的人干得好,和汉语中的新官上任三把火异曲同工,貌离神合。)

(5) Among the blind the one-eyed man is King. 山中无老虎,猴子称霸王。

(6) Last night I heard him driving his pig to market. 昨夜我听到他鼾声如雷。

(7) Who would have thought of Mr.Mottram doing so well? And so many of his friends, too, that used to stay here? We were entertaining angels unawares. 谁知道摩特兰先生干得那么出色?还有他那许多朋友,原来都住在这儿的,谁知道呀?我们真是有眼无珠。

(8) It was, as Bill afterwards expressed it, “during a moment of temporary mental apparition”, but we didn’t find that out till later. 恰如后来比尔说的那样,那阵子简直是一时鬼迷心窍。不过,我们直到后来才明白了这个意思。

apparition在原文中是鬼魂或幽灵出现的意思。mental apparition直译是心中有鬼,这就很容易给人造成误解,因此需要多少将原形象适当地转换一下。)

(9) They will be ice-skating in hell the day, when I vote the aid for them. 要我投票赞成给他们援助,除非太阳从西边出来。

ice-skating in hell如译成在地狱里滑冰就很难为中国读者所理解和接受。)
(10). “Until her husband won the pools, she was the most commonplace, dowdy, illiterate creature imaginable, but now that she dresses herself up like a society queen and nearly always remembers to sound her aitches, people are already beginning to forget what she was like before.

“Fine feathers make fine birds.”

过去没有比她更平平常常、无知无识而又邋邋遢遢的了,自从她男人赢得全部赌注以后,她打扮得象个社交皇后,总是记住发H的音,人们开始忘记她以前是什么样子了。

人靠衣裳马靠鞍嘛。

(11) I’d much rather see her once or twice and not do anything about it---what could I do about it anyway? She’s a bit out of my class, don’t you think? If I did try to do anything, I’d only get sent off with a flea in my ear. 我宁愿见她一两面就算了──我还能干什么呢?你没看到她和我不怎么相称吗?我要干点什么,也只会碰一鼻子灰。

(原文a flea in one’s ear的字面意思是耳朵上有个跳蚤,用来比喻讥讽的话,刺耳的话send sb. off with a flea in one’s ear意思是用讥讽的话气走某人,与汉语碰一鼻子灰意思相近,但如译为用讥讽话气走某人,则过于平淡,远不如碰一鼻子灰生动、俏皮。)

(12) He was so fond of talking that his comrades nicknamed him “magpie”. 他如此唠叨,同伴们给他起了个 麻雀的外号.

(英语中 喜鹊 喻义 唠叨、饶舌”, 但在汉语中 喜鹊 却象征着 喜事、吉祥”, 麻雀 表示 唠叨、饶舌”, 所以用归化法.)

(13) There’s a people’s court waiting for him. His God-damned head is going to be separated from his God-damned neck. 人民法庭正等着他。狗头就要和狗脖子分家呢。

 (原文God-damned意为该死的,但如译成该死的头该死的脖子远不如狗头狗脖子痛快。)
(14) I’m a diplomat, a linguist, altogether a bespectacled cream puff.
我是个外交官,一个语言学家,总而言之,是个戴眼镜的银样邋枪头。

(原文cream puff的字面意思是奶油松饼,比喻中看不中用的人,和汉语中的银样邋枪头意思相近。但如直译成奶油松饼,则不易为汉语读者所接受。归化后,既能保存原意,又能为汉语读者所接受。)

采用归化时,要避免走极端,不要用汉语民族文化色彩太浓的词(:历史人物、地理名词等)来归化英语习语, 否则译文会让人感觉不伦不类。

(1) Beauty lies in lover’s eyes. 情人眼里出美人.

(此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 情人眼里出西施”. 译者怎能把中国古代美女西施搬到西方作品中去呢?)

(2) Many heads are better than one. 一人不及众人计.

(此处就不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮”.如把历史人物诸葛亮搬到西方作品中去,总让人感到不伦不类的.)

(3) Never offer to teach fish to swim. 不要教鱼儿游泳.

(此处也不宜归化为具有浓厚汉语文化色彩的 不要班门弄斧 不要关公面前耍大刀”.)

2.3.2 Foreignization

异化翻译法即在译文中保留原文语言及文化等差异性特色的翻译法。康德关于共通感的论述,可以深化我们对异化翻译法的认识。人类在认识、判断上具有一致性”,认识、判断具有普遍可传达性”,因此相异的语言表达是可以在不同语言之间通过异化翻译法传移的。人类共通感具有普遍有效性”,这就意味着文化、知识与经验在不同的民族之间并没有理解与接受上的鸿沟,一个民族能够理解与接受的文化、经验与知识也应该能够被其他民族所理解与接受。不同的语言反映着不同民族的文化、经验与知识,不同的民族文化、经验与知识固然具有特殊的一面,但是由于人类具有共通感,不同民族的文化、经验与知识绝大部分可以为全人类所理解、接受、分享,文化、经验、知识是可以跨民族传移的。不同语言之间存在不同的表达,往往是由于不同的语言截取了不同的经验,或不同的经验侧面,这些基于经验的习惯表达可以通过异化翻译法在语言间自由移植,反映人类文化、经验、知识的异语表达可以以异化法的方式被翻译到其他语言中去,可以被具有共通感的其他民族的人们所理解、接受。

  一种语言并不仅仅是继承旧有的内容,新的时代会有新的创造,否则语言就僵化、贫乏化了。任何一种语言都会随着时间的推移而不断有所发展,有所创新。异化翻译法可以是语言发展的一个途径,成为译入语的一个创新源。作为一种创新方式,异化翻译会给译入语增添新的表达,给译入语增添新的活力。通过异化翻译的移植,不同的语言之间可以相互补充、相互丰富,不同的语言之间也可以逐渐实现一定程度的趋同,有利于相互之间直接、迅捷的交流沟通。

  现举汉语对英语的异化翻译数例如下:

英语:hat trick ;汉语异化翻译:帽子戏法。

1:Outraged , Thomas Jefferson and James Madison waged a war of words against the Sedition Act.

汉译:愤怒至极,托马斯·杰斐逊和詹姆斯·麦迪逊对《叛乱法》发动了字战。

2: I am happy to note that those who are nowon the other side of the fence are taking note and are now commencing to realize that their apathy or their indifference has been a bit dangerous . . .

汉译:我高兴地看到,现在在篱笆另一边的那些人已经在予以关注了,现在开始认识到他们的冷漠或麻木不仁是有点危险⋯⋯

字战在篱笆另一边异化翻译”a war of words””on the other side of the fence”是完全可行的。

3:For three years on that most sensational of the New York dailies he had been the star man , the chiefmuckraker , the chief sleuth. His interest was in crime.

汉译:三年来在纽约最具轰动性的日报中他一直是明星人物,总耙粪者,总探子。他的兴趣在于犯罪。

4:The muckrakers have left a crusading tradition , and there is always a need for the more responsible of them in most industrial societies.

汉译:耙粪者们留下了改革传统,其更具责任感者在多数工业社会中总是需要的。

此异化翻译的固定表达可兼含英语原词的种种言内或言外之意,可以实现汉语与英语在各种语境中的同词对应。

  可以异化汉译的英语表达可谓比比皆是,举例如下:

英语表达 \ 异化汉译

a grain of mustard seed 一粒芥种(喻指有极强生命力、很大发展前途的小东西)

ass waggeth his ears 驴摇耳朵(喻指不懂装懂)

baby kisser 吻婴专家(喻指笼络人心的政客)

bear (take up) one’s cross 背十字架(喻指忍受苦难、经受磨练)

bell the cat 给猫系铃(喻指为众人利益而承担风险)

between the cup and the lip 杯唇之间(喻指将行未行之际,尚存意外可能之际)

blow hot and cold 吹热吹冷(喻指摇摆不定)

break the ice 打破坚冰

can the leopard change his spots 豹岂能改变斑点,豹改不了斑点

cast pearls before swine 珠投豕前(类似于对牛弹琴)

draw a bow at a venture 随意开弓(喻指瞎猜)

eat crow 吃下乌鸦(喻指忍受侮辱)

fight windmills 挑战风车

finger/ handwriting on the wall 墙上手指/ 字迹(喻指不祥之兆)

fly on the coach - wheel 车轮苍蝇(喻指狂妄自大的人)

hang by a thread 悬于一线

have/ hold the cards in one’s hand 手中有牌(喻指有把握,稳操胜券)

key shall be upon his shoulder 钥放肩头(喻指委以重任)

let the cat out of the bag 袋里放猫(喻指泄露秘密或露出马脚)

lame duck 跛脚鸭(喻指任期将终但未再当选的官员,或无能的人)

lion’s share 狮子份额(喻指最大部分,绝大部分)

make bricks without straw 做砖无草(类似于无米之炊)

milky way 奶路,牛奶路(喻指银河)

mountain in labor 大山临产(喻指雷声大、雨点小)

play possum 扮演负鼠(喻指装睡、装傻、装死)

Potter’s field 陶人之田(喻指公墓、墓地)

put/ throw/ lay salt on one’s tail 尾上撒盐(喻指盯住某人、捉住某人)

put a spoke in somebody’s wheel 车轮插杠(喻指阻挠实现或防止发生)

put one in the cart 装入囚车(喻指使人困顿、使人为难)

put the cart before the horse 车置马前(喻指本末倒置)

red tape 红带子(喻指官样文章,烦琐拖拉的公事程序)

salt of the earth 世上之盐(喻指社会中坚、人中表率)

sell the pass 出卖关口(喻指背叛事业)

sow the wind and reap the whirlwind 种的是风,收的是暴风(喻指种下祸根,得到恶果)

steal one’s thunder 窃取雷声(喻指抢先做别人想做的事,或窃取别人的成果)

straw polls 稻草测验(喻指选举前的民意测验)

swan song 天鹅之歌(喻指生前最后作品、演出等)

swap horses in midstream 中流换马(喻指临阵换将)

There’s many a slip twixt the cup and the lip. 杯唇之间闪失多

thirty pieces of silver 三十块钱(喻指叛徒的身价)

wash one’s hands of 洗手不干

win hands down 唾手可得,唾手而得

异化法同样适用于汉英翻译,汉语纸老虎的英语翻译就是的一个典型的例子。纸老虎英译”paper tiger”的译者是毛泽东:

1946 8 ,毛泽东在接见美国著名记者安娜·路易斯·斯特朗,第一次提出了一切反动派都是纸老虎这个著名论断。当时翻译把纸老虎这个词译成”scare - crow”。毛泽东立即打断谈话,问斯特朗”‘scare- crow’是什么东西?”斯特朗回答说:”那是扎成的人形,农民把它竖在田里吓唬乌鸦。毛泽东听后,立即表示这样翻译不够确切。他说:”纸老虎并不是吓唬乌鸦的死东西。它是用来吓唬孩子的。它看起来像可怕的老虎,但实际上是硬纸板做成的,一受潮就会发软,一阵大雨就会把它冲掉。接着,毛泽东就自己用英语说:”纸老虎(paper - tiger) “这几个字。

毛泽东堪称异化翻译法大师,深明异化翻译法的价值与必要性,在零始点处就直截了当地对纸老虎进行了异化翻译,效果绝佳。异化翻译的”Paper tiger”一词同原文一样生动形象,直观明了,一出现便迅即被英语本族使用者理解、接受,成为英语中的常用词,并进入了英语字典,”Equally significant, she claims influence despite election results which showed the environmental lobby to be a paper tiger. “( Doug Bandow)”But Britain , leading from the front on this initiative , worries about a ‘paper tiger’effect and is firmly against declaring numbers. “( Ian Black) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 中列有”paper tiger”词条,其释义是”One that is seemingly dangerous and powerful but is in fact timid and weak”

异化翻译有助于提高表达的语境适应性,提高译文的衔接程度,同时也有利于不同语言之间的词语趋同。美国布什总统在2001 12 月的一次演讲中使用了由汉语异化翻译入英语的”paper tiger”一词,其原文是:”Not long ago , al Qaeda’s leader dismissed America as a paper tiger. That wasbefore the tiger roared.”

汉译时,我们可以直接将”paper tiger”回译成纸老虎”:”不久前,基地领导人声称美国是纸老虎。那是在老虎怒吼之前。在英语中,第二句的”tiger”与第一句的”papertiger”是关联表达,前后衔接,在汉语中,第二句的老虎与第一句的纸老虎同样实现了关联表达的前后衔接。比较原文和译文,可以发现两种语言之间明显的词语趋同。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 3 Comprehensive Abilities through Comparative Studies

So far we have covered all the translation theories and methods. However, theories and methods are of little use unless applied in adequate practice. Besides, one’s translation abilities are based on a two-way course, i. e., a good command of both one’s mother tongue and the English language, and therefore, a comparative study of the syntax and the basic structure of the source language and the target language would be of great help in enhancing our comprehensive abilities. Comparative studies may be conducted in both macroscopic and microscopic spheres, namely, the comparison at language level and in various individual cases. Since it is impossible for us to go into various individual cases in detail, we are going to focus on the former.

3.1 Contrastive Analysis of the Words and Phrases

  经过约一千五百年的演变和发展,英语今天已成为世界上词汇最丰富,表达能力最强的语言之一。据英国语言学家J.A.希尔德的估计,现代英语的语词,至少有五十万个。美国语言学家S.B.弗莱斯纳则认为今天英语不少于六十万个词。英语词量所以如此丰富,照希尔德分析,主要原因是英语历来都乐于吸收与其接触的每一种语言的词语……。可以说,英语将代表欧洲主要文化的词语兼收并蓄于一身,这在欧洲各语言来说是独特的。正因为如此,英语有许多特点,现试略举下面数点:

1)英语有丰富的同义词

  所谓同义词,是指两个或两个以上的,彼此有同样的或者差不多同样的基本意义的词。例如表示临危不惧这个意义时,就有下面这几个词:brave(源自意大利语)bold(古英语)courageous(古法语)valorous(源自拉丁语)valiant(源自拉丁语)但它们的各自含义却有所差异。brave含有坚定刚毅的意思;bold有勇猛,甚至肆无忌惮之意;courageous是指坚强不屈的性格;valorous一般用来描述事迹或技艺;valiant,则是对人而言,如valiant defenders of stalingrad.表示生气发怒,有下面一些意义相同或接近的词:irate, angry, indignant, wrathful, enraged, infuriated, incensed等。但它们各自涵义也不同。Angry表示一般生气;irate表示怒形于色;indignant表示义愤;wrathful表示盛怒;enraged表示狂怒;infuriated表示因忿恨而愤怒之意;incensed则有激怒之意。

    表示这一动作的动词,有:cut, chop, slice, mince, hack, hew, pare, slash, whittle, prune, truncate, incise, excise; chisel等等。

  表示步行这种动作的各种表现,就有下面一些词:walk, go, stroll, saunter, trudge, plod, toddle, stride, march, trot, strut, stalk, shuffle, wobble, amble等。

  关于英语同义词,十八世纪英国著名作家和词典编辑者约翰逊说过:”Words are seldom exactly synonymous.”英国语言学家C.L.雷恩说了一句有趣的话:”English is among the easiest languages to speak badly, but the most difficult to use well.”这说明,英语入门容易,但要学得精却不是那么容易。    

2) 一词多义和一词多用的现象

  在现代欧洲语言中,英语词形变化最简单,所以一词多用,一词多义的现象比较普遍,即同一个词往往属于几个词类,一个词往往具有许多不同的意义。如以like为例:

The two buildings are very like.

这两座楼很相像。(形容词)

Don’t treat me like a guest.

别把我当客人。(介词)

Like enough, the ship will arrive in the port tomorrow.

这条船很可能明天进港。

Like knows like.(名词)

英雄识英雄。

I hope I can drive the tractor like you do.(连词)

我希望开拖拉机开得像你一样好。

I don’t like smoking.(动词)

我不喜欢抽烟。

  一词多义的根源是词义的演变。一个词产生新的词义后,旧义可能消亡,也可能保存。一词多义是语言的普遍现象,只不过英语比其他语言多。在《牛津大词典》中,”cut”作为动词将近一百五十个义项。介词”of”有六十三个义项;动词”take”有一百二十三个义项。根据韦氏大学字典(Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary)所列单词意义,”lead”33个意义,”make”41个意义,”light”47个意义,”run”54个意义。词的多义性给我们理解与翻译英语带来了许多困难。因此,结合上下文,正确地辨析词义,对于理解原文,忠实地表达原作,保证译文的质量,具有头等重要的意义。      

3) 英汉词汇的某些差异

    由于英国人和我们在历史、地理、经济、文化、政治制度,习俗方面的不同,因此,彼此反映客观事物的角度、方法及联想自然就有所差别,词的涵义也往往有所不同。例如:

(1).词义宽窄的不同.

汉语有些词涵义较英语宽,如:

   hill, mountain

   lend, borrow

   take, bring, fetch

   cry, shout, call

   smile, laugh

   sheep, goat

   hear, smell

   mouse, rat

英语中有些词涵义比汉语宽,如:

wear      穿、戴

river      江、河

marriage   娶、嫁

net       网、帐子

gun       枪、炮

brother    兄弟、同胞、同业、社友、会友

brother-in-law  姻兄、姻弟、内兄、内弟、姊夫、妹夫、大伯、小叔

uncle     伯父、叔父、舅父、姑父、姨父

sister     姊、妹、姑、姨、嫂

aunt     伯母、大妈、婶娘、叔母、姨母、姑母、舅母、姑妈、阿姨

(2).观察事物的角度和联想不同.                     

walking - tractor--由驾驶者扶着走

手扶拖拉机--用手扶

Close the door behind you.--着眼点在人所处的位置

随手关门--着眼于手

Chair days--以老年人总是坐着来象征

暮年--以天色的早晚来比喻

lie on one’s back; lie on one’s stomach--以身体的前后为准

仰卧;伏卧--以脸的方向为准

下面再举一些联想不同的例子:

laugh off your head      笑掉了牙

as timid as a hare  胆小如鼠

to drink like a fish 牛饮

as strong as a horse气壮如牛

at sixes and sevens 乱七八糟

like a cat on hot bricks 热锅上蚂蚁

a sea of faces 人山人海

goose pimples 鸡皮疙瘩

(3).习俗不同,文化背景不同.

to wear one’s Sunday best  穿上最好的衣服

as poor as a church mouse 一贫如洗

fool’s paradise黄粱美梦

Like priest, like people师高弟子强

To know the ropes内行,懂其秘诀

To sail one’s own boat 独立行动

(4).词的涵义与搭配的不同.           

  用名词作定语修饰词,反映了当代英语简约的总趋势,但这类搭配译成汉语时,要作必要的调整,特别是常常需要补入汉语动词的概念。如:

parent ticket  发给家长的入场券

shoe habit      穿鞋的习惯

wheat farmers种小麦的农民

street sense    在街上辨方向的能力

life work为之奋斗了一生的工作

smog fighters清除烟尘的工作人员

community gossips在邻里间流传的风言风语

age group按年龄划分的人群

sip一点一点地喝(啜)

(5).词的前后排列顺序不同.                

前后back and forth

左右right and left

新书old and new

水陆land and water

贫富rich and poor

田径track and field

迟早sooner or later

同一的one and the same

唯一的one and only

不论晴雨rain or shine

东西南北North, South, East and West

衣食住  food, clothing and housing

(6). 英语中习语所用的数词与汉语不同

 think twice   三思而行

in two minds   三心二意

in threes and fours 三五成行

at sixes and sevens  乱七八糟

in one or two words三言两语

one in a thousand 百里挑一

3.2 Contrastive Analysis of Sentences

According to some linguists, noticeably Mr. Lian Shuneng in his Contrastive Studies on English and Chinese, ten contrasts indicate the disparity between the English and the Chinese languages.

1) Synthetic vs. Analytic (综合与分析)

English is a synthetic language marked with inflexions (曲折变化形式) while Chinese is an analytic language without any inflection, which is usually implied in the context or explicitly shown in such words as “着、了、过”etc. For example:

During the wartime, years like these would have meant certain death for many people. Many would have become beggars and others would have been compelled to sell their children. 战争期间碰到这样的年景,很多人肯定会死去,很多人会逃荒要饭,很多人会被迫卖儿卖女。

Thus encouraged, they made a still bolder plan for the next year. 由于受到这样的鼓励,他们为第二年制定了一个更大胆的计划。

2) Compact vs. Diffusive (聚集与流散)

English sentences are compact (聚集) , namely, tightly combined with connectives or prepositions, while Chinese is diffused(流散)that is, loose in structure.

Now the integrated circuit has reduced by many times the size of the computer of which it forms a part, thus creating a new generation of portable minicomputer.现在集成电路成了计算机的组成部分,使计算机的体积大大缩小,产生了新一代的袖珍式微型计算机。

A notion has taken hold in the US to the effect that the only people who should be encouraged to bring children into the world are those who can afford them.在美国有一个根深蒂固的观点,说是只有对那些抚养得起子女的人们,才应鼓励其生育。

Although lonely in a new land, he was described by his fellow workers and students as cheerful, of a friendly nature, honest, and modest. 虽然他单身一人,又处在异乡客地,但正如他的同事和学生描述的那样,他为人愉快开朗,温文尔雅,诚实谦虚。

3) Hypotactic vs. Paratactic (形合与意合)

In English, clauses or phrases are coordinated with one another or subordinated to one another syntactically while in Chinese they are placed one after another without coordinating connectives.

The many colors of a rainbow range from red on the outside to violet on the inside. 彩虹有多种颜色,外圈红,内圈紫。

He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession. 他有一种令人难堪的习惯:一会儿一个看法,自相矛盾,变化无常。

The present onslaught of vehicles poses a serious threat to urban life and pedestrian peace of mind. 车辆横冲直撞,严重地威胁着城市生活,路上行人无不提心吊胆。

The insect nibbles the green leaves.

The toad eats the insect that nibbles the green leaves.

The snake catches the toad that eats the insect that nibbles the green grass.

蛇吃癞蛤蟆,癞蛤蟆吃虫子,虫子吃绿叶。

枯藤老树昏鸦

小桥流水人家

古道西风瘦马

夕阳西下

断肠人在天涯 (意合)

4) Complex vs. Simplex (繁复与简短)

English sentences are long and complex, while Chinese sentences are short and simple. For example:

Many man-made substances are replacing certain natural materials because either the quality of the natural product can not meet our ever-increasing requirement, or, more often, because the physical properties of the synthetic substance, which is the common name for man-made materials, have been chosen, and even emphasized, so that it would be of the greatest use in the fields in which it is to be applied. 人造材料通称为合成材料。许多人造材料正在代替某些天然材料,这或者是由于天然物产的数量不能满足日益增长的需要,或者往往是由于人们选择了合成材料的一些物理性质并加以突出而造成的。因此,合成材料在拟用的领域将具有极大的用途。

5) Impersonal vs. Personal (物称与人称)

English uses more impersonal structures than Chinese does, as shown in the following examples:

What has happened to you? 你出了什么事了?

An idea suddenly struck me. 我突然想到一个主意。

A strange peace came over her when she was alone. 她独处时感到一种特别的安宁。

Not a sound reached our ears. 我们没有听到任何声音。

A great elation overcame them. 他们欣喜若狂。

Alarm began to take entire possession of him. 他开始变得惊恐万状。

From the moment we stepped into the People’s Republic of China, care and kindness surrounded us on every side.一踏上中华人民共和国国土,我们就随时随地地受到关怀与照顾。

The thick carpet killed the sound of my footsteps. 我走在厚厚的地毯上,一点儿脚步声也没有。

Excitement deprived me of all power of utterance. 我兴奋得说不出话来。

6) Passive vs. Active (被动与主动)

As we have mentioned in the previous units, the passive voice is extensively used in English, while Chinese sentences are usually active.

A few years ago it was thought unusual that programs could ever be called up by viewers to be displayed on their TV screens at home. 几年前,人们还认为,观众居然能够打电话要求在自己家里的电视屏幕上播出节目是一件稀罕事。

The volume is not measured in square millimeters. It is measured in cubic millimeters.体积不是以平方毫米计量的。它是以立方毫米计量的。

Electrical energy can be stored in two metal plates separated by an insulating medium. Such a device is called a capacitor, or a condenser, and its ability to store energy is termed capacitance. It is measured in farads.电能可储存在由一绝缘介质隔开的两块金属极板内。这种装置叫做电容器。其储存电能的能力称为电容。电容的测量单位是法拉。

7) Static vs. Dynamic (静态与动态)

English is static, and agent nouns are frequently used to replace verbs, while Chinese is dynamic, using more verbs in a single sentence.

He is a good eater and a good sleeper.他能吃能睡。

You must be a very bad learner; or else you must be going to a very bad teacher. 你一定很不善于学习,要不然就是教你的人很不会教。

The computer is a far more careful and industrious inspector than human beings. 计算机比人检查得更细心、更勤快。

8) Abstract vs. Concrete (抽象与具体)

In expressing the same idea English is more abstract while Chinese is more concrete.

The absence of intelligence is an indication of satisfactory developments. 没有消息即表明有令人满意的进展。

A high degree of carelessness, pre-operative and post-operative, on the part of some of the hospital staff, took place. 医院某些医护人员在手术前后都非常粗心。

9) Indirect vs. Direct (间接与直接)

Some English sentences tend to use indirect ways of affirmation while Chinese sentences are straightforward.

I couldn’t feel better. 我觉得身体好极了。

I couldn’t agree with you more. 我太赞成你的看法了。

He can’t see you quick enough. 他很想尽快和你见面。

I don’t think the Council can or should remain indifferent to these most serious violations of human rights. 我认为,安理会不能也不应该对这些极其严重的侵犯人权的行为袖手旁观。

I don’t feel that we should leave them isolated. 我认为,我们不应该让他们与世隔绝。

10) Substitutive vs. Repetitive (替换与重复)

Generally speaking, English doesn’t use so many repetitions as Chinese does.

You should help her since you have promised to do so. 你既然答应帮助她了,就应该帮助她。

He hated failure; he had conquered it all his life, risen above it, and despised it in others. 他讨厌失败,他一生中曾战胜失败,超越失败,并且蔑视别人的失败。

Men and nations working apart created these problems; men and nations working together must solve them. 人与人之间,国与国之间离心离德,便产生这些问题,人与人之间,国与国之间齐心协力。定能解决这些问题。

 

Lecture 4 Diction

(The selection, extension, elevation and degradation of word meaning)

Colors fades, temples crumble, empires fall, but wise words endure.

                                                                --Edward Thorndike

色彩会退去,宙宇会倒塌,帝国会衰亡,惟有充满智慧的言语会永恒。

                                                                 —爱德华 · 桑代克

By “diction” we mean the proper choice of words and phrases in translation on the basis of accurate comprehension of the original. In the practice of translation, what perplexes us most frequently is how to find an equivalent in the language to be translated into. Great care is called for in the translation of “familiar”. English words into Chinese, as their meanings vary with the change in collocation or context. Take the following simple sentence, for example:

Tension is building up.

Without context, both “tension” and “build up” may have various explanations. Thus this English sentence may be translated into different Chinese expressions accordingly:

·形势紧张起来。

·张力在增大。

·电压在增加。

·压力在增强。

……

Just as a noted linguist has observed, “the meaning of a word is its use in the language”, and “each word, when used in a new context, is a new word”. The above example is a good illustration of this saying.

In comparison with Chinese, English words are generally more flexible both in form and in meaning, therefore it is often a hard task for a translator to find their Chinese equivalents that are suitable to the occasion. Take the word “story” for example:

(l) This war is becoming the most important story of this generation. 这场战争行将成为这一代人的最重大的事件。

(2) It is quite another story now. 现在的情况完全不同了。

(3) Some reporters who were not included in the session broke the story. 有些没让参加那次会议的记者把内情捅出去了。

(4) He’ll be very happy if that story holds up. 如果这一说法当真,那他就太高兴了。

(5) The Rita Haywoth’s story is one of the saddest. 丽泰·海华丝的遭遇算最惨的了。

(6) A young man came to Scotti’s office with a story. 一个年轻人来到斯科特的办公室报案。

(7) Last Dec. the Post first reported that probes were being made in each of those cities, but officials refused to confirm the story. 去年12月,《邮报》首先报道侦察工作已在那些城市里进行,但官员们拒绝证实这条消息。

(8) The story about him became smaller and by and by faded out from the American TV. 报道中对他的渲染减少了,不久就从美国电视上销声匿迹了。

As we can judge from the context, the “story” in the above sentences indicate different senses respectively:(1) “event”; (2) “situation”; (3) “inside information”; (4) “statement”; (5) “experience”; (6) “law case”; (7) “news”; (8) “report”.

4.1 Methods to Discriminate the Original Meaning of an English Word

Since English words are prone to various meanings, it is of vital importance for a translator to discern the right meaning of a given word. And the following are the major methods of discriminating word meaning suggested by some linguists.

4.1.1 Judging from the Word Formation

In order to discriminate the original meaning of an English word, it is necessary for us to have a knowledge of English lexicology , and specifically, a knowledge of word formation, such as compounding, derivation, affixation, blending, acronym, clipping, etc. A good command of them will help to shed light on the correct meaning of some difficult words.

For example, the word “parabiospheric”, which consists of para-(outside)

+bio-( biologic) + spheric (having the form of a sphere). After a brief analysis, we may safely put it into “外生物层的”.

Another more complicated instance, “pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis”. This extremely long word seems appallingly complicated. However, an anatomic study of its composition enables us to get a clear understanding of its meaning: pneumono- (of lung) + ultra- (beyond) + micro(very small) + scopic- (of viewing or observing) + silico- (of silicon) + volcano + coni- ( koni, of dust) + osis (forming the name of a disease). Even if we are not sure of the equivalent of this medical term, we may roughly get the right meaning of the

Long word: a kind of lung disease caused by extremely small silicon particles. And   a look into some dictionary leads us to the definite answer:”硅酸盐沉着病,肺尘病(一种矿工易染的病)”

4.1.2Judging from the Part of Speech

许多英语词汇往往有不同的词性,即分属于几种不同的词类。翻译时首先要确定这个词在句子中属于哪一类词,然后再根据词类选择一个确切的词义。

例如:like作形容词时意思是相同的;作动词时意思是喜欢、希望;作介词时意思是……一样;作名词时意思是喜好、英雄,如:Like knows like.(英雄识英雄)。

下面再以right为例加以说明:

Rightopen your mouthlet me have a look

好,把嘴张开,让我来瞧瞧。(感叹词)

He hoped to be absolutely right about this issue

他希望在这个问题上绝对正确无误。(形容词)

I must answer that phonebut I’ll be back right away

我得去接电话,马上就回来。(副词)

The ship righted itself after the big wave had passed

大浪过后,船又平稳了。(动词)  

In Englandwe drive on the left side of the roadnot the right side

在英国,车辆靠路的左侧行驶而不是靠右侧行驶。(形容词)

He exercised his legal right as President to halt the investigation

他行使了总统的法定权力去阻止这场调查。(名词)

It serves sb. right.

某人罪有应得。

Miss Right

[]理想中的未来妻子

Mr. Right

[]理想中的未来丈夫

4.1.3 Judging from the References

The meaning of a pronominal word, that is, what it refers to, is to be judged from the references. The pronominal words include:

l) third person pronouns; indefinite pronouns such as someanyeachboth; and definite pronouns such as much, many, few ,little, etc. For example:

· He (father) sent John to the university and was eager to have him distinguish himself. 他送约翰上大学,巴望能让儿子出类拔萃。

2) demonstrative pronounssuch as thisthatthesethose, and demonstrative adverbs such as here, there, now , then, etc. For example:

·Health is above wealthfor this can not give so much happinessas that. 健康比财富更重要,因为财富不能像健康那样给人以幸福。(or:因为后者不能像前者那样给人以幸福。)

3) References of comparison. For example:

·I hate blue shirt; white shirt suits me but gray is the most preferable. 我讨厌穿蓝衬衫,喜欢穿白衬衫,而最喜欢穿灰衬衫。

Without the referential words “father”, “health”, “wealth” and “shirt” in the above three sentences, it would be very difficult to make out the real meaning of such words as “him”, “himself”, “this”, “that” and “the most preferable”.

4.1.4 Judging from the Context and Collocation

The meanings of the words “tension” and “story” in previous examples are explicit enough in the context. Here is another example: develop.

1Symptoms of SARS developed.非典型性肺炎的症状出现了。

2We had hopes of developing light industry on quite a large scale.我们曾经希望大规模地发展轻工业。

3Land animals are thought to have developed from sea animals.陆地动物被认为是由海洋动物进化而来的。

4The local government is planning to develop the western areas.当地政府计划开发西部地区。

5The photographer develops all his films.那位摄影师所有的胶卷都是由他自己冲洗的。

6I’d like to develop this idea a little more fully before I go on to my next point.在讲下一点前,我想把这一观点论述得更充分一些。

7Scientists have succeeded in developing many new plants.科学家已经成功地培育出了很多的植物新品种。

实际上,不仅单个单词的词义需要根据上下文来确定,有时候一个词组或者一句话的理解也离不开上下文。

例如:没有一定的语境或上下文,就很难判断

“Fire”!到底是上级下达命令开火!还是有人在大声呼喊失火啦!

“Not at all”意思究竟是一点也不还是不用谢

“Tom passed到底是说汤姆传了球(打桥牌时轮到叫牌)而没有叫牌,还是说他考试及格了

试比较 “as luck would have it”在下列句中表示截然相反的意思:

aAs luck would have itno one was in the hotel when the explosion took place

很幸运,爆炸发生时宾馆里恰好没有人。

bAs luck would have itthere was rain on the day of the camp

很不幸,野营那天恰好下雨。

试译下列句子

1. observe the behavior of birds. 观察鸟类的习性

2. Do they observe Christmas Day in that country? 那个国家的人过圣诞节吗?

3. He observed that we should probably have rain. 他说也许会下雨。

分析:observe有三个基本意义:

Watch carefully 观察

Pay attention to rules);celebrate festivalsanniversariesetc)遵守(规则);庆祝(节日)

Say by way of comment 评论,说

(据《牛津英汉双解词典》P773-774

4. The law obliges parents to send their children to school. 法律要求父母送子女入学。

5. They were obliged to sell their house in order to pay their debts. 他们被迫出卖他们的房子来还债。

6. I’m much obliged to you. 我非常感激你。

分析:oblige有三个基本意义:

oblige sb to do sth require  要求

compel: (尤用于被动态)强迫

do a favor :施惠;答应要求而作

如:please ~ me by closing the door.请替我关上门。 Obliging neighbor 热心助人的邻居

Collocation is also an inseparable factor in diction. Let’s look at the word “delicate” in the following illustrations, where different renditions are given to the same word so as to suit the collocation.

·delicate skin  娇嫩的皮肤

·delicate porcelain精致的瓷器

·delicate upbringing娇生惯养

·delicate living奢侈的生活

·delicate health虚弱的身体

·delicate stomach容易吃坏的胃

·delicate vase容易碰碎的花瓶

·delicate diplomatic question微妙的外交问题

·delicate difference讲不大清楚的差别

·delicate surgical operation难做的外科手术

·delicate ear for music对音乐有鉴赏力

·delicate sense of smell灵敏的嗅觉

·delicate touch生花妙笔

·delicate food  美味的食物

Here is another example: raise.

raise fears引起恐惧

raise vegetables种植蔬菜

raise a family养家糊口

raise the dead使死者回生

raise a fleet集结一支舰队

raise a monument树一座丰碑

raise an embargo解除禁运

要注意的是,英语中有些名词单复数形式的意思大相径庭。试比较下面名词两种形式的不同含义:

1Work 工作,works工厂、著作。

2Time 时间,times时代。

3Letter 字母、信,letters文学。

4Force 力量,forces军队。

5Paper  纸,papers文件、证件。

6Air 空气,airs做作的姿态。

7Manner 方式, manners礼貌。

8Return 归还,returns利润。

9Authority 权力,authorities当局。

10Ground 地、场地,grounds理由。

You cannot build a ship, a bridge or a house if you don’t know how to make a design or how to read it. 不会制图或看不懂图纸,就不可能造船、架桥或盖房子。

分析:build在英文中可跟三个宾语搭配,但汉语不能,需选用不同的词。

4.1.5 Judging from Different Branches of Learning and Specialties

For example, the word “base”:

·The lathe should be set on a firm base. 车床应安装在坚实的底座上。(机械)

·As we all knowa base reacts with an acid to form a salt. 众所周知,碱与酸反应生成盐。(化学)

·A transistor has three electrodes, the emitter, the base and the collector. 晶体管有三个电极,即发射极,基极和集电极。(电子)

·Line AB is the base of the triangle ABC. AB线是三角形ABC的底边。(数学)

·He is on the second base. 他在二垒。(体育

4.2 Some Techniques Employed in Translating a Given English Word

In his Stylistics and Translation, Mr. Liu Miqing has suggested 7 techniques in translating a given English word. We may add in another technique, pictographic translation, to make up the total number of 8.

4.2.1 Deduction

Deduction is to deduce the original meaning in the light of the explanation of an English dictionary. This is a major means in English-Chinese translation. For example:

Stopout — (AmE.) a student who interrupts his education to pursue some other activity for a brief period  辍学学生

community—a social group or class having common interests ……派(), ……界人士

challenge — to question the lawfulness or rightness of (sth. or sb.) 对……表示怀疑; 质疑; 对……提出异议

4.2.2 Transplant

That is a literal translation of the parts of a given English word.

·Microwave    ·Supermarket     ·Splashdown    ·dataphone

4.2.3 Extension

This may be either from specific to general or from concrete to abstract, and vice versa.

·bottleneck 瓶颈—交通狭口—阻塞(from concrete to abstract)

·brain trust  脑托拉斯—智囊团  (from specific to general)

·brain drain  脑排干—人才外流斗—人才流失 (from concrete to abstract)

·It is more than transient everydayness.这远非一时的柴米油盐问题。(from abstract to concrete)

4.2.4 Substitution

This is to replace the words of the original expression with Chinese synonyms or idioms according to different situations.

·to kill sb. as an example  杀一敬百  (or.杀鸡给猴看)

·Pleaser withhold the handout.  请不要发这些材料。

·He was indeed a good riddance.他还是不在的好。

·The same is not true with a mortal illness.如果是得了不治之症(or.绝症),情况就不一样了。

4.2.5 Explanation

This technique is commonly used when there is no corresponding Chinese expression and all the above-mentioned techniques fail to make sense.

·mindlessness思想上的浑浊状态

·togetherness  不分彼此的集体感

·redshirt  美国大学中在体育方面有发展前途的学生

·swan song  绝唱,辞世之作,归天之作

·a throwaway society  一个大手大脚、浪费成凤的社会

4.2.6 Combination

This means to integrate two words of close meaning into one expression.

·so subtle and careful an observer一位如此精细的观察者

·his mendacity and dishonesty 他的狡诈

·a grim and tragic Christmas 一个惨淡的圣诞节

·the body and mind cramped by noxious work 有害工作造成的身心困顿。

4.2.7 Pictographic Translation

      By this technique English words are translated according to their actual shapes.

·H-beam   ·O-ring   ·U-steel   ·V-belt   ·X-brace   ·Y-curve

工字梁,环形圈,槽钢,三角皮带,交叉支撑,叉型曲线

4.2.8 Transliteration

This technique is most frequently used in dealing with proper nouns (especially the names of people and placestrademarksetc.) Besidesit is also used in coinage where no existing Chinese expression is available.

·Wall Street       华尔街

·The Times       泰晤士报

·Pentium         奔腾(计算机微处理器)

·Citroen          雪铁龙(汽车商标)

·quinine          奎宁 (一种药物名称)

·clone            克隆

·Internet          因特网

·hacker           黑客

4.3 Extension of Word Meaning

英译汉时,有时会遇到某些词在英语词典上找不到适当的词义,如任意硬套或逐词死译,会使译文生硬晦涩,不能确切表达原意,甚至造成误解。这时就应根据上下文和逻辑关系,从该词的根本含义出发,进一步加以引伸,选择比较恰当的汉语词来表达。

现举例说明如下:

4.3.1 Conversion of Meaning

翻译时,如果完全生搬硬套字典所给的字面意思,对号入座,会使译文生硬晦涩,含糊不清,甚至令人不知所云。因此,应根据上下文和原词的字面意思,作适当的转化。

The factors which are likely to influence investment spending do not stop here.

译:可能影响投资开支的因素并不止这些。

do not stop here 不停留在这里转译为并不止这些

Whether you like it or not, globalization is here to stay. We are not going to reverse the trend.

译:不管你对它的态度如何,经济全球化已成为我们生活的一部分,这个趋势不可逆转。

若把它死译为呆在这里,不通顺。但引申为已成为我们生活的一部分,把原文的信息充分地传达出来,且易于读者理解。

Our products, if maintained properly and regularly, can at least see twenty years’ service.

译:我们的产品如果适当地定期检修,至少可以使用20年。

see twenty years’ service 看见20年的服务转译为使用20

4.3.2 Abstract Extension of Meaning

英语中,特别在现代英语中,常常用一个表示具体形象的词来表示一种属性、一个事物或一种概念。翻译这类词时,一般可将其词义作抽象化的引伸,译文才能流畅、自然。

There is more to their life than political and social and economic problem, more than transient everydayness.

译:他们的生活远不止那些政治的、社会的和经济的问题,远不止一时的柴米油盐问题。

everydayness 日常性具体引申为日常生活所必需的柴米油盐

The factory is famous for its arsenal of technical geniuses.

译:这家工厂以拥有众多技术精英而著称。

arsenal 军火库具体引申为众多

Everybody has his smiles and tears.

译:每个人都有自己的欢乐和悲哀。

这里用smile(微笑)和tears(眼泪)这两个词义具体的词来代表快乐的和悲伤的时刻,翻译时引申为欢乐悲伤。同样的例子还有:

The technological process was then a newcomer in the U.S., so application was not numerous.

译:这种工艺流程当时在美国还刚刚问世,因此应用得并不多。

Tony is only nineteen, and is the baby of our crew.

译:托尼只有19岁,是我们当中最年轻的。

He was a man to let his heart rule his head.

译:他是个感情用事的人。

I was practically on my knees but he still refused.

译:我几乎是苦苦哀求,但他仍然拒绝。

The matter was finally settled under the table.

译:事情终于私下了结了。

He Hamleted at a chance and regretted for it.

译:机会到来时他犹豫不决,过后又后悔不已。

7当中的Hamlet一词本来是莎士比亚名剧《王子复仇记》中的主人公之名,在这里用作动词,以他优柔寡断的性格特点来比喻类似的情况,翻译时必须把这个词抽象化,否则中国读者很难理解其义。同样的例子还有下句中的Titanic一词:

8The canoe Titanicked on the rock in the river.译文:小船在河上触礁遇难。

4.3.2 Concrete Extension of Meaning

The interest rates have see-sawed between 10 and 15 percent.

译:利率一直在10%到15%之间不断波动。

see-saw 跷跷板一上一下的交替摆动抽象化为波动

Brain drain has been Kangding’s No.1 concern; as a matter of fact, it has been an epidemic in this area.

译:人才外流一直是康定的头号问题,实际上,它已经成为那一地区带普遍性的严峻问题。

brain 头脑抽象化为人才concern 关心的事情抽象化为问题epidemic 流行病抽象化为带普遍性的严峻问题

There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of the imperialists.

译:帝国主义者的性格既 残暴,又狡猾。

这里把tigerape这两个具体形象引申为这两个形象所代表的的属性:残暴狡猾

Every life has its roses and thorns.

译:每个人的生活都有甜和苦。

这里把roses(玫瑰)和thorns(刺)这两个具体形象引伸为这两个形象所代表的属性:

The Great Wall is a must for most foreign visitors to Beijing.

译:长城是大多数外国游客在北京必不可少的游览项目。

这里把”must”这个词义比较抽象的词引申为具体的必不可少的游览项目,清楚地表达了原文的例子。词义具体化引申的例子还有:

He was a tough proposition.

译:他是个难对付的人。

We must fight against corruption and injustices.

译:我们必须和贪污腐化以及各种不公正现象作斗争。

I knew I would encounter extremes of weather.

译:我知道会遇到最冷和最热的天气。

Many voices have been raised demanding the setting up of an Arab common market.

译:许多人要求建立一个阿拉伯共同市场。

We would like to build a colored society where all men have equal opportunity.

译:我们愿意建立一个肤色人种不同而机会均等的社会。

He visited all the tourist attractions in the city.

译:他游览了这座城市所有的旅游景点。

4.3.3 Extension According to Idiomatic Way in Chinese

英汉翻译时,还要注意遵循汉语语言的搭配习惯。在对词汇的理解和翻译十分准确的情况下,我们同时还需要考虑到它与所翻译句子的其他部分的搭配问题,也就是说对词意还要作搭配上的引申。

The translation of poetryespecially into poetrypresents very special difficultiesand the better the original poemthe harder the translator’s task.译诗,特别是以诗译诗,有十分特殊的困难。原诗越是精彩,译者的任务就越艰巨。  

在这句话中,present的基本意思为说明出面提出等,但与意思较固定的difficulty(困难)相搭配却显得不太合适,所以把present引申为就比较符合汉语的搭配和表达习惯了。

So the swallow flew round and round hertouching the water with his wingsand making silver ripples.燕子在她身边不停地飞来飞去,用它的翅膀点水,激起许多银色的涟漪。

本句中,touch是一个常用词,它的基本意思是触摸触及等,但它与wingwater搭配起来,就不能译为(燕子)用它的翅膀去触及水,这里可以借用汉语的一个成语蜻蜓点水,所以把该句译为用它的翅膀点水既符合汉语的搭配习惯,又可传达一种轻快的动作色彩。另外,make的常见意思是制造做出使等,但和涟漪搭配时,这里最好把它译成激起,才符合汉语的表达习惯。

4.3.4 比喻、惯用语和成语典故的引申

The burning question of my childhood had been richly answered.

我小时候梦寐以求想得到答案的问题,终于得到了圆满的回答。

He felt like a fish out of water.

他感到很不自在。

John stands head and shoulder above his classmates in playing tennis.

约翰的网球水平在全班鹤立鸡群。

Don’t turn your back on friends who are down and out.

不要不理睬 穷困潦倒的朋友。

In older cranes that have already paired off, dancing reinforces the union—it’s a sort of annual renewal of “vows.”

对已有配偶的成年鹤来说,舞蹈会加强相互间的结合这成了每年一次的重温山盟海誓的仪式。

4.4 Elevation and Degradation

语言本身虽没有阶级性,但在具体使用时不可能不为一定的阶级服务。为了忠实于原文的思想内容,翻译时必须正确理解原作者的基本政治立场和观点,然后选用适当的语言手段来加以表达。原文中有些词本身就表示褒贬意义,就应该把褒贬意义相应地表达出来;但也有些词语孤立起来看似乎是中性的,译成汉语时就要根据上下文恰如其分地把它们的褒义或贬义表达出来。

4.4.1 英语中有些词本身就有褒贬意义,汉译时就应相应地表达出来,如:

He was a man of high renown (fame).

他是位有名望的人。(褒)

As a demanding boss, he excepted total loyalty and dedication from his employees.

他是个苛刻的老板,要求手下的人对他忠心耿耿,鞠躬尽瘁。(贬)

Those who do not remember the past are condemned to relive it.

凡是忘掉过去的人注定要重蹈覆辙。(贬)

“He was polite and always gave advice willingly,” she recalled.

她回忆说,他彬彬有礼,总是诲人不倦。(褒)

4.4.2 英语中有些词义是中立的,本身不表示褒义或贬义,但在一定的上下文中可能有褒贬的意味,汉译时就应该用具有褒贬意味的相应的词来表达,如:

An aggressive country is always ready to start a war.

好侵略的国家总是准备挑起战争。

An aggressive young man can go far in this firm.

富有进取心的年轻人在这家公司前途无量。

The enemy’s scheme went bankrupt.

敌人的阴谋破产了。

We have mapped out a scheme.

我们制订了一项计划。

Many people think he is one of the most ambitious politicians of our times.

很多人认为他是我们这个时代最野心勃勃的政客之一。

The ambitious girl wants to become a world champion.

这个壮志凌云的姑娘想夺得世界冠军。

Hitler pursued an aggressive policy after he seized power.

希特勒掌权后推行了侵略政策。

An aggressive young man can go far in this firm.

在这个公司里,积极上进的年轻人大有希望。

The stubborn boy refused to listen to his parents’ advice.

这个倔强的男孩不愿意听从父母的忠告。

The invaders met a stubborn resistance from the local people.

侵略者遭到了当地人民顽强的抵抗。

4.4.3有些词虽然经常带有某些褒义或贬义,但在一定的上下文中可以表示中性

英语当中有一些词我们习惯上经常用做褒义词或贬义词,但在某些上语境中却可以用来表示中性,不带有任何褒义或贬义的色彩,如下面两个句子中”discriminate”一词的感情色彩就有所不同:

The president promised to work to repeal state and federal laws that discriminate against women.

总统承诺将力求废除歧视妇女的州法及联邦法。

By a 6-3 vote, the court held that this official discrimination did not violate the Constitution.

法院以六票对三票的裁决认定,政府在这个问题上采取的区别对待的办法并不违反宪法。

“discriminate”一词通常表示歧视之意,带有贬义,如在例21中的用法。但在例22”discriminate”一词却表示”treat in different ways”,不含任何贬义。如果我们取歧视来一意翻译显然不合适,因此在这里应译为区别对待这个中性词。类似的例子还包括下面的”flatter””perfect”等词:

John was too obviously flattering the gentleman by saying that he was the most courageous man he had ever seen.

约翰说这位绅士是他所见过的最有胆量的人,他的奉承太露骨了。

Mr. Brown felt greatly flattered when he received the invitation to deliver a lecture.

受到邀请要进行演讲,布朗先生感到非常荣幸。

This perfect plan was greatly appreciated.

人们对这个完美的计划赞赏有加。

How was the perfect crime found out?

那个不露蛛丝马迹的罪行是怎样发现的?

4.4.4 正确判断褒贬

We had been conferring with out allies on the crucial question of whether and when the island should be invaded.

我们已经同我们的盟国商谈了是否入侵该岛及何时入侵的紧要问题。(误译)

我们已经同我们的盟国商谈了是否进攻该岛及何时进攻的紧要问题。(正译)

 Invade 译成 入侵,是贬义。该词也可用作进攻,无贬义。此句主语是we 谈自己一方的事当然不会使invade带贬义。

He is bright and ambitious.

他很聪明,野心勃勃。(贬)

他很聪明,有抱负。(褒)

They incited him to go into further investigation.

他们煽动他再作进一步调查。(贬)

他们鼓励他再作进一步调查。(褒)

根据上下文选择褒贬义。

翻译比较与赏析

Able was I ere I saw Elba.

(注:原文据说是1814年各国联军攻陷巴黎后,拿破仑被放逐到地中海的厄尔巴岛时所写。)

其妙处在于:它是一个回文句。回文(palindrome),如 civicdeed/ King are you glad you are king?) 

雾锁山头山锁雾  天连水尾水连天 (佚名题厦门鼓浪屿鱼腹浦联)

我在看到厄尔巴之前曾是强有力的。

不见棺材不掉泪。 (许渊冲  译)

不到俄岛我不倒。 (许渊冲  译)

落败孤岛孤败落。  (马红军

若非孤岛孤非弱。   (马红军

Better late than the late. (原文为美国高速公路上矗立的安全警示牌)

迟到总比丧命好。

晚了总比完了好。              (马红军 译)

迟了总比死了好。              (马红军 译)

宁迟一时,不迟一世。       (马红军 译)

慢行回家,快行回老家。   (马红军 译)

宁迟时,勿辞世。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 5 Conversion

5.1 Definition of Conversion

Conversion, one of the commonly adopted translation techniques, means the change of parts of speech in translation. Owing to the syntactical differences between English and Chinese, it is usually impossible for a translator to keep to the original part of speech in the process of translation. For example:

Original English: This watch never varies more than a second in a month.

Chinese Version: 这块表一个月的误差从不超过一秒钟。

The English verb “varied” can hardly be rendered into Chinese by the same part of speech without spoiling the original meaning. As a matter of fact, a word belonging to a certain part of speech in one language sometimes has to be converted into a different part of speech, so as to bring forth a readable and coherent sentence.

5.2 Conversion in E-C Translation

Generally speaking, conversion of parts of speech in E-C translation takes the following forms:

5.2.1 Conversion into Verbs

One of the most remarkable differences between English and Chinese syntax is the use of the verb. It is taken for granted that an English sentence contains no more than one predicate verb, while in Chinese it’s not unusual to have clusters of verbs in a simple sentence. Take the following sentence for example.

Original English: Families upstairs have to carry pails to the hydrant downstairs for water.

Chinese Version: 住在楼上的人家得提着水桶去楼下的水龙头打水。

Five verbs are clustered in the Chinese version for an English simple sentence. This indicates obviously that in English-Chinese translation the conversion of English words of various parts of speech into Chinese verbs is a matter of common occurrence.

l) Nouns Converted into Verbs

The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special longing. 看到我们的喷气式飞机,听见隆隆的机声,我感到心驰神往。

Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe. 火箭己经用来探索宇宙。

I think my little brother is a better teacher than I. 我想我的小弟弟比我教得好。

(1) Verb-derivated Nouns Converted into Verbs

英语中具有动作意义的名词或由动词派生出来的名词,在翻译的时候,可以转换为汉语的动词。

The operation of a machine needs some knowledge of its performance.

操作机器需要懂得机器的一些性能。

Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe.

火箭已经用来探索宇宙。

One of the characteristics of the Chinese language is the predomination of the verb.

An acquaintance of world history is helpful to the study of current affairs.

读一点世界史,对学习时事是有帮助的。

The 1967 UN document calls for the settlement of the Middle East conflict on the basis of Israeli withdrawal from occupied territories and Arab acknowledgement of Israeli’s right to exist.

1967年联合国文件要求在以色列撤出所占的土地以及阿拉伯承认以色列的生存权利的基础上来解决中东冲突。

In spite of the growth of other kinds of transport, railroads continue to be the backbone of the transportation industry.

尽管其它各种交通工具都发展了,铁路仍然是运输业的中

Thanks to the introduction of our reform and opening policy, our comprehensive national strength has greatly improved.

(动词转名词) 由于我们实行了改革开放政策,我国的综合国力有了明显的增强。

(2) Nouns Means Actions Conerted to Nouns  

The appearance of the book on the market caused a sensation.这本书在市场上出现时,轰动一时。

A glance through his office window offers a panoramic view of the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial.从他的办公室窗口可以一眼看到华盛顿纪念碑和林肯纪念馆的全景。

The sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special longing.看到我们的喷气式飞机,听见隆隆的机声,令我特别神往。

(3). – er Nouns Converted to Nouns

she is a well-known singer. 表职业,只能译成她是一位著名的歌唱家。)

Some of my classmates are good singers.

我同班同学中有些人唱歌唱得好。(动词)

He is no smoker, but his father is a chain-smoker.

他倒是不抽烟,但他的父亲却一支接着一支不停地抽。

He was a regular visitor.

(名词)他以前经常来。(动词)

(4). Nouns in Idioms Converted to Verbs

作为习语主体的名词往往可以转译成动词,如:

They took a final look at Iron Mike, still intact in the darkness.

他们最后看了铁麦克一眼--它依旧安然无恙地耸立在黑暗中。

The next news bulletin, shorter than usual, made no mention of the demonstration.

下一个新闻节目比通常短,没有提到游行。

Too much exposure to TV programs will do great harm to the eyesight of children.

孩子们看电视过多会大大地损坏视力。(名词转动词)

试译下列句子。

1. This pupil is a good writer. 这个小学生文章写得不错。

2. He is a lover of Chinese culture. 他热爱中国文化。

3. The very thought of you makes me happy. 一想到你,我就开心。

4. Difference between the social systems shall not be an obstacle to their cooperation. 社会制度的不同,不应妨碍互相合作。

5. She has a good command of the English language. 她精通英语。

6. The book is a reflection of Chinese society the 1930s. 这本书反映了30年代的中国社会。

7. A successful scientist must be a good observer. 一个成功的科学家一定善于观察。

8. In some cases, deserts are the creation of  destruction of virgin forest. 沙漠有时是人类毁坏原始森林造成的。

9. 他们在工作中非常注意理论联系实际。(译成名词) In their work, they pay much attention to the combination of theory with practice.

2) Prepositions Converted into Verbs

英语和汉语比较起来,汉语的动词用得比较多,这是一个明显的特点。在英译汉时,由于汉语中缺乏和英语介词相对应的词,我们往往把英语介词译成汉语动词。

This computer is of high sensibility. 这台计算机具有很高的灵敏度。

The shaft turns about its axis. 轴围绕它的轴心转动。

“Coming!” Away she skimmed over the lawn, up the path, up the steps, across the veranda and onto the porch. “来啦! 她蹦蹦跳跳地跑起来,越过草地,跑上小径,跨上台阶,穿过走廊,进了门廊。

I shall be with you in a few minutes. 我一会儿就来陪你。

Colonel House was between the sheets by twelve. 12点的时候,豪斯上校已经睡在被窝里了。

The police are after you.警察正在追捕你。

They went out after new mineral resources.他们外出寻找新的矿源。

Jim was named after his father.吉姆的名字是仿照他父亲的名字取的。

I am here on business.我是出差来这里的。

Applicants must be above the age of 25.申请人的年龄必须超过25岁。

He is a man after my own heart.他是一个合我心意的人。

Your behavior was against the rules of the hospital.你的行为违反了医院的规定。

He went to the classroom for books.他去教室取书。

I had been at work all day.我整天都在工作。

The girl in red is my cousin.那个穿红衣服的女孩是我表妹。

The teacher entered into the classroombook in hand.老师拿着书走进教室。

go by bike  骑自行车去

a present for Mary  (送)给玛丽的礼物

a letter written in English  一封用英语写的信

Ivy Baker Priest, the treasurer of the United States, is from a poor miner family.艾薇·贝克·普里斯特,美国财政部长,出身于一个贫穷的矿工家庭。

Party officials worked long hours on meager food, in cold caves, by dim lamps. 党的干部每天长时间工作,吃的是粗茶淡饭,住的是冰冷的窑洞,点的是黯淡的油灯。

A force is needed to move an object against inertia. 为使物体克服惯性而运动,就需要一个力。

3) Adjectives Converted into Verbs

Many English adjectives after a link verb indicating one’s consciousness, feelings, emotions, desires, etc. are always converted into Chinese verbs. These words include: confident, certain, careful, cautious, angry, sure, ignorant, afraid, doubtful, aware, concerned, glad, delighted, sorry, ashamed, thankful, anxious, grateful, able, and so on.

Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his life. 医生说他们不敢肯定能否救得了他的命。

The fact that she was able to send a message was a hint. But I had to be cautious.她能够给我带个信儿这件事就是个暗示。但是我必须小心谨慎。

Both of the substances are soluble in water. 两种物质都能溶于水。

If we were ignorant of the structure of the atom it would be impossible for us to study nuclear physics.如果不了解原子的结构,我们就不可能研究核物理学。

I am sure they will win the basketball game.我相信他们将打赢这场篮球赛。

The couple is fond of modern music.这对夫妇喜欢现代音乐。

常用的词:

To be concerned about  关心

To be worried 担心

To be doubtful  怀疑

To be certain 确信

To be sure  肯定

To be familiar with 熟悉

To be content with 满足

To be suspicious 不相信

To be anxious 焦虑

To be grateful 感激

To be resentful  讨厌

Shortly after Jimmy Carter’s election as president, his advisers were reported as recommending lower taxes and higher government spending. 在吉米·卡特当选总统不久,据说他的顾问就建议他降低税收,扩大政府开支。

4) Adverbs Converted Into Verbs

英语的有些副词,如on, in, off, over, up, out等,当它们在作句子的主语补足语、宾语补足语,或其他句子成分的时候,可以根据它在句子中的意思,翻译成汉语的动词。

The performance is on. 演出已经开始。

The oil in the tank is up. 油箱里的油已经用完。

After careful investigation they found the design behind. 经过仔细研究,他们发现这个设计落后了。

As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on. 他跑出去时,忘记了穿鞋。

When the switch is offthe circuit is open and electricity doesn’t go through. 当开关断开时,电路就形成开路,电流不能通过。

In this case the temperature in the furnace is up. 这种情况下,炉温就升高。

Their experiment has been over. 他们的试验已经结束了。

What’s on tonight?今天晚上演什么?

Let me in. 让我进去。

试译下列句子。

1. The old man became happy at her words. 老人听到她的话高兴起来。

2. That is the present from his girlfriend. 那是他女朋友送给他的礼物。

3.Neither gold nor stone are soluble in water. 金子和石头都不能溶解于水。

4. They were news-hungry. 他们迫切地想弄到消息。

5.2.2 Conversion into Nouns

Nouns account for an overwhelming part of the vocabulary either in Chinese or in English, and the conversion between nouns and other parts of speech is also frequently adopted in English-Chinese translation.

1) Verbs Converted into Nouns

Some verbs that are derived from nouns can hardly be translated literally so they are usually converted into nouns.

Formality has always characterized their relationship. 他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。

Most U. S. spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth’s atmosphere after completing their mission. 美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁。

The factory must aim at an increase in production. 工厂必须把增加产量作为自己的目标。

When you shake your head it usually means “no.” 摇头通常的意思是

The box was full of books and weighed a ton. 箱子里满是书,重量为一吨。

Numerous abstentions marked the French elections.这次法国选举的特点是弃权的人多。

She personifies beauty and grace.她是美丽与优雅的化身。

Their original work impressed every attendant of the conference deeply.他们创造性的工作给每个与会者留下了深刻的印象。

The ten-year-old girl behaves as an adult.这个十岁女孩的举止像个大人。

动词behaves被译为汉语名词举止。

a well-dressed man, who looked and talked like an English, got into the train.一位穿着考究,外表、谈吐像英国人的人上了火车。

looked talked 在原文中为动词,译成汉语转化为名词。

We can house you if the hotels are full. 如果旅馆都客满了,我们可以给你提供住处。

2) Adjectives Converted into Nouns

Adjectives with the definite articles to indicate categories of peoplethingsor adjectives used as predicative to indicate the nature of things may also be converted into nouns.

They did their best to help the sick and the wounded.他们尽了最大的努力,帮助病号和伤员。

Robin Hood and his merry men hated the rich and loved and protected the poor.罗宾汉和他的伙伴们痛恨阔人,热爱并保护穷人。(定冠词+形容词)

They did their best to help the sick and the wounded.他们尽了最大的努力去帮助病人和伤员。

The old believe everythingthe middle-aged suspect everything the young know everything. —— Oscar Wilde老年人什么都相信,中年人什么都怀疑,少年人什么都懂。王尔德 1854-1900

The busy 忙碌的人

The unemployed 失业者

the needy 有困难的人

The oppressed 被压迫者

修饰形容词的副词译成相应的形容词:

The well informed 熟悉情况的(人)

The better educated 受过良好教育的(人)

Under given conditions, the harmful can be transformed into the beneficial.在一定条件下,坏事可以变成好事。

Stevenson was eloquent and elegant------but soft.史蒂文森有口才、有风度,但很软弱。

They were considered insincere.他们被人认为是伪君子。

Ice is not as dense as water. 冰的密度比水小。

试比较:冰不如水稠密。

In his article the author is critical of man’s negligence toward his environment.作者在文章中,对人类疏忽自身环境作了批评。(形容词转名词)

试译下列句子。

1. An interest in people’s deepest feelings characterizes all her writings.

对人们最深沉感情的关注,是她所有著作的特征。

2. He was motivated by a desire to reach a compromise.

他的动机是希望达成某种妥协。

3. The earth on which we live is shaped like a ball.

我们居住的地球,形状象一个大球。

3) Pronouns Converted into Nouns

English pronouns are more frequently used than Chinese pronouns. In order to make clear what they really refer towe sometimes have to convert them into nounsi.e., to repeat the nouns that they stand for.

Radio waves are similar to light waves except that their wavelength is much greater. 无线电波与光波相似,但无线电波的波长要长得多。

The specific resistance of iron is not so small as that of copper. 铁的电阻系数不象铜的电阻系数那样小。

The result of this experiment is much better than those of previous ones. 这次实验的结果比前几次的实验结果都好的多。

5.2.3 Conversion into Adjectives

In English-Chinese translation there are some circumstances in which various other parts of speech in English can be converted into Chinese adjectives.

1) Nouns Converted Into Adjectives

Sometimes it is more convenient for a translator to convert an English noun into a Chinese adjective.

The pallor of her face indicated clearly how she was feeling at the moment.她苍白的脸色清楚地表明了她那时的情绪。

This experiment was a success.这个实验很成功。

Independent thinking is an absolute necessity in study.学习中的独立思考是绝对必须的。

The security and warmth of the destroyer’s sick bay were wonderful.

驱逐舰的病室很安全也很温暖,好极了。

He talked for some time with Bundy, and his questions reflected the enormity of his doubts.他同邦迪谈了一会,他提出的问题反映出他有很大的怀疑。

We are deeply convinced of the correctness of this policy and firmly determined to pursue it.我们深信这一政策是正确的,并有坚定地决心继续奉行这一政策。

2) Adverbs Converted Into Adjectives

English adverbs are used more extensively than Chinese adverbsand many of them can be converted into Chinese adjectives.

Earthquakes are closely related to faulting.地震与断裂运动有密切的关系。

It is demonstrated that gases are perfectly elastic.已经证实,气体具有理想的弹性。

Not only can English adverbs be converted into Chinese adjectives, but also into nouns occasionally.

He is physically weak but mentally sound. 他身体虽弱,但思想健康。

5.2.4 Conversion into Adverbs

Sometimes, for the sake of convenience, some parts of speech in English may be converted into Chinese adverbs in English-Chinese translation.

l) Adjectives Converted into Adverbs

This is the most common case when a noun modified by an adjective is converted into a verb in the Chinese version. Sometimesit is just for the sake of convenience.

Below 4Cwater is in continuous expansion instead of continuous contraction.水在4度以下就不断地膨胀,而不是不断地收缩。

Only when we study their properties can we make better use of the materials.只有研究这些材料的特性才能更好地利用它们。

A helicopter is free to go almost anywhere.直升飞机几乎可以自由地飞到任何地方去。

2) Nouns and Verbs Converted into Adverbs

This conversion is adopted to make the version conform to the idiomatic Chinese expression.

I have the honor to inform you that your request is granted.我荣幸地通知您,您的请求已得到批准。

The new mayor earned some appreciation by the courtesy of coming to visit the city poor.新市长有礼貌地前来看望城市贫民,赢得了他们的一些好感。

Rapid evaporation at the heating-surface tends to make the steam wet. 加热面上的迅速蒸发,往往使蒸汽的湿度变大。

5.2.5 Conversion of Sentence Elements

Conversion in a broad sense includes the conversion of the “active voice” into the “passive” (which is to be covered separately in UNIT 7). Sometimes, it may involve the change of various elements of a sentence, such as from the subject to the objectand vice versa. For example:

As the match burnsheat and light are given off.火柴燃烧时发出光和热。

(from the subject to the object)

This sort of stone has a relative density of 2.7.这种石头的相对密度是2.7

(from the object to the subject)

Care must be taken at all times to protect the instrument from dust and damp.应当始终注意保护仪器,不使其沾染灰尘和受潮。

(from the subject to the predicate)

Careful comparison of them will show you the difference. 只要仔细把它们比较一下,你就会发现不同之处。

(from the subject to the adverbial, from the object to the subject)

Conversion is also a common practice in Chinese-English translation. As mentioned above, the Chinese language abounds with verbs and its sentences are comparatively short and straightforward. When translated into English, many of the Chinese verbs have to be converted into other parts of speech such as nouns, adjectives, prepositions or preposition phrases, and so on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 6 Amplification

Amplification, also called addition, means supplying necessary words in our translation on the basis of accurate comprehension of the original(增词法指的是在英汉翻译中适当增加原文中无其形而有其义的词语,以使译文自然通顺,完整、贴切地表达原文的思想内容。). As a matter of principle, a translator is not supposed to add any meaning to or subtract any meaning from the original work. However, this does not mean that a translator should refrain from supplying necessary words to make his/her version both accurate in meaning and in keeping with the idiomatic use of the language to be translated into. In fact, it is precisely for the purpose of "faithful representation" of the thought of the author that we often resort to "amplification". This is because English and Chinese are two entirely different languages and each has its own historical and cultural background. Therefore, many ideas, idiomatic expressions and shorthand words, etc. that are well understood in the country of their origin can hardly make sense to people abroad. In this case, it is unimaginable for a translator to stick to the original pattern without alteration and consequently amplification is adopted in dealing with such occasions.

Look at the following examples.

Success is often just an idea away.

原译:成功往往只是一个念头的距离。

改译:成功与否往往只是一念之差。

分析:原译似乎与原文一一对应、丝丝入扣。但却含糊不清,让人难解其意。改译增加了与否二字起到了画龙点睛的作用,让人茅塞顿开。

The dust, the uproar(喧嚣)and the growing darkness threw everything into chaos.

原译:烟尘、喧闹声和渐浓的夜色使一切都陷入混乱之中。

改译:烟尘滚滚,人声嘈杂,夜色愈浓,一切都陷入混乱之中。

分析:改译增加滚滚人声几个字,不仅将原文意思表达得淋漓尽致,而且四字格的运用也使译文音韵和谐、琅琅上口。

Generally speaking, there are three considerations in amplification

1) Semantic consideration

2) Syntactic consideration

3) Transformative consideration

All these aim at making the Chinese version more accurate and clear, and hence more readable.

6.1 Semantic Consideration

     Since English and Chinese are different in expressions, what is full in meaning in the former may be considered insufficient in the latter. In translation, amplification is needed to make sematic completion. Rhetorically considered, amplification is required to secure clearness of the version.

6.1.1 Supplying Unit-terms

由于英语中没有量词,数词(包括不定冠词a)与可数名词往往直接联用,而汉语却往往要借助量词。因此翻译时应根据汉语表达习惯恰当地增加表示其形状、特征或材料的量词。

a bike 一辆自行车    

a mouth 一张嘴     

a full moon 一轮满月

Repeat the experiment using a wooden rulera metal spoona coina tin lida pencil and a rubber eraser. 用一把木尺、一把金属匙、一枚硬币、一个铁盒盖、一枝铅笔和一块橡皮,重做这个试验。

Aluminum is said to be the thirteenth element in the periodic table. 铝是周期表上的第13号元素。

A red sun rose slowly from the calm sea. 一轮红日从风平浪静的海面冉冉升起。

Into the dim clouds was swimming a crescent moon. 一钩新月渐渐隐没在淡淡的云彩里。

To the east and the south a faint pink is spreading. 东南方呈现一抹浅红,正在向远处扩展。

A stream was winding its ways through the valley into the river. 一弯溪水蜿蜒流过山谷,汇到江里去了。

This too was a complete lie. 这纯粹是一派胡言。

英语中有些动词或动名词,译成汉语动词时经常需要增加一些表示行为、动作量的量词。如:

Once, they had a quarrel.有一次,他们争吵了一番。

He gave her a sly look. 他狡猾地看了她一眼。

I was extremely worried about her, but this was neither the place nor the time for a lecture or an argument. 我真替他万分担忧,但此时此地既不宜教训她一番,也不宜与她争论一通。

He squeezed his sister too and gave her a gentle push. 他也捏了一下他的妹妹,并且把轻轻推了她一下。

You might just take a look at my coat before this afternoon. See if it wants pressing. 你最好在下午之前瞧一下我的上衣,看是否要熨一下。

6.1.2 Supplying Plural Signs

英语的可数名词有单复数之别,汉语名词的复数没有词形变化,很多情况下不必表达出来。但要表达指多数人的名词时,可在该名词后面加字,如the teachers(教师们),或在该名词前面加上诸位各(位),如ladies and gentlemen(诸位/各位女士和先生)。此外,英语名词复数,汉译时还可以根据情况,增加重叠词、数词或其他一些词来表达,提高修辞效果。

可增加数词或重迭词表示复数。例如:

The lion is the king of animals. 狮子是百兽之王。

I saw bubbles rising from under the water. 我看见一个个水泡从水下升起。

The very earth trembled as with the tramps of horses and murmur of angry men. 连大地都震动了,仿佛万马奔腾,千夫怒吼。

The mountains began to throw their long blue shadows over the valley. 群山已在山谷里开始投下蔚蓝色的长影。

An individual human existence should be like a river — small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls. 一个人的一生可以比作一条河流:开始身躯很小,两岸之间非常狭窄,水流湍急,冲过砾石,飞下悬瀑。

As is known to all, air is a mixture of gases. 大家知道,空气是许多种气体的混合物。

From the experiments, scientists learned that ocean currents there are erratic than they had thought.科学家们从这些实验得知,那里的洋流远比他们以前想像得更不稳定。

You can almost put it down as a general rule in this town that presidents often invite “honest criticism” from their aides.你几乎可以把这一点看成首都的一种惯例:历届总统经常请他们的助手们提出直率的批评

Very acute problems exist among them.他们之间存在着种种非常尖锐的问题。

They drove in a black limousine, past groves  of birch trees and endless rows of identical new buildings.他们乘坐一辆黑色轿车,经过一丛丛的白桦树和看不到尽头的一排排千篇一律的新住宅。

Flowers bloom all over the yard.朵朵鲜花开满了庭院。

Newsmen went flying off to Mexico.记者纷纷飞到墨西哥去了。

Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。/ 眼见为实。

6.1.3 Supplying Tense Signs

英语动词的时态靠动词词形变化或加助动词来表示时态的变化,汉语动词没有词形变化,表达时态要靠增加汉语特有的时态助词或一般表示时间的词。因此,汉语往往用曾经已经等表示过去时;用正在等表示进行时;用等表示将来时。除此之外,为了强调时间概念或强调时间上的对比,往往需要加一些其他的词。

1. 过去完成时的翻译

I had never thought I’d be happy to find myself considered unimportant. But this time I was.以往我从未想过,当我发觉人们认为我是无足轻重时,我会感到高兴。但这次情况确是如此。

I had imagined it to be merely a gesture of affection, but it seems it is to smell the lamb and make sure that it is her own.原来我以为这不过是一种亲热的表示,但是现在看来,这是为了闻一闻羊羔的味道,来断定是不是自己生的。

The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him.原来老头儿已教会了孩子捕鱼,所以孩子很爱他。

Stephen looked older than his age for he had had a hard life.斯梯芬看起来比他实际的年龄要老些,因为他曾经历过艰苦的生活。

They had always been able to control things. Now control was getting away from all of them.他们从前一向是能够控制局面的,现在他们大家正在丧失控制了。

2. 时间上的对比

The old man said, " They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was as poor as we are." 老人说:"听人说,从前他父亲是个打鱼的。他过去也许跟我们现在一样穷。"

English prose is elaborate rather than simple. It was not always so. 现今英国散文华巧而欠简朴,过去却并非总是如此。

I knew it quite well as I know it now. 我在当时就知道得同现在一样清楚。

Mother insisted to this day that she thought I was just joking. 直到今天母亲还坚持说,她当时以为我只是开开玩笑而已。

The high-altitude plane was and still is a remarkable bird. 该高空飞机过去是现在仍然是一种了不起的飞机。

6.1.4 Supplying Verbs

根据意义上的需要,可以在名词前后增加动词,使句子意义明确,通顺自然,符合汉语习惯。

After the football match, he still has an important meeting. 在观看足球比赛之后,他要参加一个重要会议。

In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts and the table tennis exhibitions, he would work on the drafting of the final communique. 晚上在参加宴会、出席音乐会、观看乒乓球表演之后,他还得起草最后公报。

My work, my family, my friends were more than enough to fill my time. 我干工作,我做家务,我与朋友来往,这些占用了我的全部时间。

Nobody could count on his restraint or rationality. 谁也不能指望他会采取克制或讲道理的态度。

He dismissed the meeting without a closing speech. 他没有致闭幕词就宣布结束会议。

6.1.5 Supplying Nouns

英语中有些动词有时用作及物动词,有时用作不及物动词,当它作不及物动词用时,宾语实际上是隐含在动词后面的,译成汉语时往往需要把它表达出来。例如:

To wash before meal. 饭前洗手。

To wash after getting up 起床后洗脸

To wash before going to bed 睡前洗脚

First you borrow, then you beg. 头一遭借钱,下一遭就讨饭。

Day after day he came to his work—sweeping, scrubbing, cleaning. 他每天都来干活扫地,擦地板,收拾房间。

有时,根据汉语的习惯搭配,需要在形容词前增加名词。

This typewriter is indeed cheap and fine. 这台打字机真是物美价廉。

He is a complicated man – moody, mercurial, with a melancholy streak.他是一个性格复杂的人喜怒无常,反复多变,有些郁郁寡欢。

He was wrinkled and black, with scant gray hair. 他满脸皱纹,皮肤很黑,头发灰白稀疏。

They, weary but game, decided to take a break. 他们人已疲倦而兴致甚高,决定先休息一下。

某些由动词或形容词派生来的抽象名词,翻译时可根据上下文在其后面增添适当的名词,使译文更合乎规范。如:

persuasion 说服工作

preparation 准备工作

tension 紧张局势

arrogance自满情绪等。

Indifference冷漠态度

madness疯狂行为

complacency自满情绪

backwardness落后状态

Precaution 预防措施

Jealousy嫉妒心理

Tension紧张局面

Remedy补救方法

After all preparations were made, the planes were flown across the U.S. to San Francisco.一切准备工作就绪以后,飞机就飞越美国去旧金山。

Recourse to arms is not the best solution to a quarrel between countries.国与国之间的争端诉诸武力,并不是最好的解决方法。

The development of economy remains one of the priorities of the Chinese government.发展经济仍然是中国政府的首要课题之一。

当具体名词表达一种抽象概念时,使文中也常根据上下文增加一些适当的名词。

He felt the patriot rise within his breast. 他感到一种爱国热情在胸中激荡。

He allowed the husband to be overruled by the judge, and declared his wife guilty. 法官的职责最终战胜了丈夫的角色,他判决他的妻子有罪。

6.1.6 Supplying Adjectives and Adverbs

根据原文的上下文,有些英语句子中的名词译成汉语时,需要增加一些适当的形容词。有些动词在一定的场合可以增加适当的副词,才能确切表达原意。

O, Tom Canty, born in rags and dirt and misery, what sight is this! 啊,汤姆·康地,生在破烂、肮脏和苦难中,现在这番景象却是多么地煊赫呀!

With the meeting to begin in just a couple of hours, I hadn’t time to worry about such trifles. 不出两三个小时会议就要开始了,我没有闲功夫为这些琐事操心了。

“Army will make a man of him”, said his father. 他的父亲说:军队会把他造就成为一个堂堂的男子汉。

He doubtlessly expected hugs, tablefuls of food, tears, laughter, and conversation followed by more conversation, then hugs and more hugs all over again, without end. 毫无疑问,他以为会有热烈的拥抱,满桌的食物,激动的泪水,欢乐的笑声,一段接一段的谈话,一次又一次的拥抱,没完没了。

分析:译文中增加了三个相应的形容词,形象地描绘出他想象中的欢乐场景,使意思更加明确,表达更加生动。

In the films of those days, all too often it was the same one: boy tractor driver meets girl tractor driver; they fall in love and drive tractors together. 在那时候的电影里,总是老一套:男拖拉机手和女拖拉机手始而相遇,继而相爱,终而并肩开拖拉机了。

Now and then his boots shone. 他的靴子时常闪闪发光。

The crowd melted away.人群渐渐散开了。

She lingered long over his letter. 她反反复复地回味着他的来信。

试译下列句子

1 I was, and remain, grateful for the part he played in my release. (注意时态)

我的获释是他成全的,对此我过去很感激,现在仍然很感激。

2Man, was, is and always will be trying to improve his living conditions. (注意时态)

人类过去、现在和将来始终都在努力改善生活条件。

3In no case will the neighbors look on with folded arms. (译出复数)

邻居们决不会袖手旁观。/(左邻右舍)……

4Another two weeks saw up-to-the standard machine parts being turned out. (译出复数)

又过了半个月,合乎标准的各种机器部件就生产出来了。

5The judge let him off with warnings not to cause trouble again.(译出复数)

法官对他再三提出警告,不得重新作案,然后就将他放了。

6The first electronic computers went into operation in 1945. (增加量词)

第一批电子计算机于1945年投入使用。

7This helps to save coal and reduce the cost of electricity.(谈及电厂)(增加动词)

这有助于节约用煤并降低发电成本。

8I remembered the fear and anger in the gunmen’s voices because John was being slow. (增加动词)

我记得因为约翰当时慢慢腾腾,歹徒的声音中流露出了恐惧与愤懑。

9) Some modifications (修改)of the original project were suggested  at the meeting yesterday. (增加名词)

在昨天的会上对原来的规划提出了一些修改方案。

10The arrogance of the aristocracy helped to lead to the French Revolution. (增加名词)

贵族的傲慢态度促发了法国革命。

11) Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. (增加形容词)

杰斐逊的勇气和理想主义是以广博的知识 为基础的。

12At the meeting he made a speech—eloquent and energetic. (增加副词)

他在会上发表了讲话非常动听有力。

13) The fan, with its modern, elegant, bright, and harmoniously colored design, is an excellent electrical household appliance for cooling purpose on hot summer days.(增加必要的名词)

本电扇款式新颖,造型雅致,色彩鲜艳,色泽调和,是炎炎夏日消暑纳凉之家电精品。

6.1.7 Supplying Summarizing Words

英语和汉语都有概括词。英语中的in short, and so on, etc.等等,翻译时可分别译为总之等待。但有时英语句子中并没有概括词,而翻译时却往往了增加两人双方等等凡此种种等概括词,同时省略英语中的连接词。

You and I 你我两人

Militarily, politically and economically军事、政治、经济等各方面

China, U.S. and Britain held this conference.中、美、英三国举办了这次会议.

The thesis summed up the new achievements made in computers, artificial satellites and rockets.论文总结了计算机、人造卫星和火箭等三方面所取得的新成就.

Then a little over a decade ago, Professors Hoyle, Bondi, and Gold, working at Cambridge, proposed an entirely different scheme.然而十多年前,剑桥大学的霍伊尔、邦迪和哥尔德三位教授却提出了完全不同的学说。

The bond between mathematics and the life sciences has been strengthened by the emergence of a whole group of applied mathematics specialties, such as biometrics, psychometrics, and econometrics.生物统计学、心理测验学、计量经济学等一大批应用数学专业学科的出现,大大加强了数学和生命科学之间的联系。(注释:原句中的连接词and被省略掉。)

6.1.8 Supplying Mood Auxiliaries

语气助词是汉语中特有的一种修辞手段,用在句中停顿处或句尾以表示各种语气,如呢、吧、呀、吗、罢了、而已等等。不同的语气助词可以起不同的作用,如肯定、疑问、祈使、中间的停顿等等,但英语中没有相应的语气助词。英译汉时应细心体会原文,增加一些语气词,更好地表达原作的意义和修辞色彩。

Don’t take it seriously. I’m just making fun of you. 不要认真嘛!我不过开开玩笑罢了。

As for me, I didn’t agree from the very beginning. 我呢,从一开始就不赞成。

He described it (Latvia)—its forests, its little villages, its people, its fierce nationalism—with an eloquence that could only arise out of deep love for one’s motherland. 他描绘它(拉脱维亚)的风土人情森林啦、小村庄啦、人民啦、人民的强烈民族主义啦等等,只有深深热爱祖国的人才能说得如此娓娓动听,滔滔不绝。

It is entirely possible that things are  being done for my release right now and that it takes time to do this. 完全有可能眼下正在想办法使我获释,只不过需要时间而已。

 “Some six or eight thousand men,” returned Montcalm, with much apparent indifference….(J. F. Cooper The last of the Mohicans)  “那也只不过六千到八千人罢了,蒙卡姆显然满不在乎地说,……

分析:译者细心体会原文,在译文增加了那也只不过罢了这一语气助词,把蒙卡姆满不在乎的语气生动地再现了出来,增强了该译入语的感染力,向读者忠实地传递了原作的含义和修辞色彩。

6.1.9 Supplying Transitions

Yes, I like Chinese food.  Lots of people do these days, sort of the fashion. 不错,我喜欢中国菜。现在很多人喜欢中国菜,这种情况算是有点赶时髦吧!

For mistakes had made, bad ones. 因为已经犯下了许多错误,而且还是很糟的错误。

Two, we heard later, were sent to college, at the government expense, while one, it was rumored, had attempted to blackmail the Agency.  Unsuccessfully. 我们后来听说,两人已由政府资助送进大学学习,并据传说,一个曾试图对中央情报局进行讹诈,结果并未得逞。

6.2 Syntactic Consideration

     As is known to all, there is a great difference between the syntactic structures of the two languages. In English there are many elliptical parts in the context which are very important to the Chinese readers. In translation, they should be supplied.

6.2.1 Supplying the Ommitted Parts in Answers to Questions

Is this your book? Yes, it is.

yes, it is = yes, it is mine.)

这是你的书吗?是的,是我的。

Don’t you want Mr. Smith to be your tutor? Yes, of course I do.

你不想让史密斯先生当你导师吗?我当然想。

6.2.2 Supplying the Ommited Verbs

Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man. 

读书使人充实,讨论使人敏捷,写作使人准确。

英语的并列句中 通常省略重复的动词,该句省略了makes。而汉语则通过重复动词,构成排比句式,增强表达效果,因此译文中添加了使人 

We are concened to develop the bilities of all our students to the full, not just their academic ability.

我们关心的是全面发展学生的各种能力,而不仅仅是发展智力。

We don’t retreat, we never have and never will.

我们不后退,我们从没后退过,将来也决不后退。

The best conductor has the least resistance and the poorest the greatest.

最好的导体电阻最小,最差的导体电阻最大

6.2.3 Supplying the Ommited Parts in the Clauses of Comparision

Better be wise by the defeat of others than by your own.

从别人的失败中吸取教训比从自己的失败中吸取教训要更好。

The system of job responsibility can be adopted where the conditions are ripe and not otherwise.

工作责任制度,条件成熟了就可以实行,条件不成熟的不要实行。

I can say to you, without any flattery, that the Chinese way of cooperation is more inventive and fruitful than others.

 (others= the way of cooperation of other countries)

我可以对你说我这样说没有任何奉承之意中国的合作方式比别国的合作方式更有特色,更有成果。

6.2.4 Supplying the Ommitted Parts in the Implied Conditional Clauses

But without Adolf Hitler, there almost certainly would never have been a Third Reich. (对过去事实的虚拟)

然而如果没有阿道夫·希特勒,那就几乎可以肯定不会有第三帝国。

At the time of Kennedy’s assassination, Kissinger felt that a second term would have led either to greatness or to disaster.a second term = a second term of presidency for Kennedy

肯尼迪遇刺时,基辛格认为,如果肯尼迪再任一届总统的话,大概不是立大功,就是闯大祸。

More thorough testing might have caught the failure initially.

如果测试更为彻底,也许一开始就能找出故障。

I am in charge of the depot, only I. people will hold me responsible but not you.

只有我一人负责管理这个仓库,出了事情别人找我,不找你。

中国还有一句成语,三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮。

译文:Still another Chinese proverb says: three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the mastermind.

如果直接对等翻译此句,在英文读者不了解汉语的成语和习语的情况下,恐怕会使他们不知所云。只有在译入语中适当的增补“with their wits combined"the mastermind",才能让他们至少知道Zhuge Liang是个非常聪明的人,从而能使他们对该习语的含义有一个较为准确和完整的概念。

 “这通身的气派竟不像老祖宗的外孙女儿,竟是嫡亲的孙女儿似的,怨不得老祖宗天天嘴里心里放不下。 (《红楼梦》第三回)

熟读《红楼梦》的人都知道凤姐这句话反映了封建社会浓厚的宗法关系:儿子所生的子女是嫡亲,是一家人;女儿所生的子女是外戚,不算一家人。黛玉是贾母的外孙女儿,但初到贾府时深得贾母的宠爱,因而凤姐说这话明摆着是讨好贾母。但是在汉语里足以区别亲疏关系的孙女儿外孙女儿等词在英语里却是同一个词granddaughter,如直接照原文翻译,无法传达原文含义。

译文:Her  whole air is so distinguished! She doesn’t take after her father, son-in-law of our old Ancestressbut looks more like a Chia. No wonder our Old Ancestress couldn’t put you out of her mind and was forever talking or thinking about you.

译者如要使英文读者明了原文这层含义,就不得不换用黛玉父亲的角度,交待她父亲是贾母的女婿,通过增补son-in-law of our Old Ancestress来表示黛玉的身份,以解决交织在一起的语言问题和社会背景问题,忠实地再现了原文的隐含意义。

试译下列句子

1. The advantages of the hall are bright, spacious, fashionable and without echo.(增加概括词)

这个大厅有四大优点:明亮、宽敞、样式新颖、没有回声。

2. They talked about wage, price, and inflation. (增加概括词)

他们谈及工资、物价、通货膨胀等问题。

3. Tom bought a red Fiat last month. (增加背景词)

汤姆上个月买了一辆红色菲亚特汽车。

4. The little boy had brought with him knife, scissors and what not, tinkling in his pocket. (增加语气词)

这个小孩随身带着刀子啦,剪子啦,以及诸如此类的东西,在口袋里丁当直响。

5. Everybody will remember this promise as we will.

每个人将会记得这个承诺,就象我们将会记得一样。

6. Matter can be changed into energy, and energy into matter.

物质可以转化为能,能也可以转化为物质。  

7. Heatedwater will change into vapor.

水如受热,就会汽化。

8. It’s more expensive than it was last time, but not as good.

它的价格比上次贵,但质量却没有上次好。

9.——Shall I bring you a dictionary or an encyclopedia?

—— Both, please.

——给你带一本字典,还是带一套百科全书?

——请把两样都带来。

10. Ice is the solid state, water the liquid state, and water vapor the gaseous state.

译文:冰是固态,水是液态,水蒸气是气态。

11. Seeing falsely is worse than blindness and speaking falsely than silence.

所见不真,犹不如盲;所言不实,不如缄默。

如果看到错误的东西还不如不看,如果说的话不真实还不如保持沉默。

观察错误比盲目还要糟糕,表达错误比沉默还要可怕。

看走了眼还不如什么都看不见,说错了话还不如什么都不说。

眼不见心不烦

误视不若不视,误言不若不言

12. This is a lucky place; if it is not, why do more and more people come to live here?

这儿是宝地!要不是宝地,怎么人越来越多呢?

13. Some plants grow well in certain areas, but not in others, for they do not have the ability to adapt themselves to foreign climate.

有些植物在某些地区长得好,到了其他地区就长不好,因为它们无法适应不同的气候。

14. The molecules of hydrogen get closer and closer with the pressure.

随着压力的增加,氢分子越来越密集。

15. Courage in excess becomes foolhardiness(蛮勇,愚勇),thrift avarice.

勇敢过度即成蛮勇,节俭过度即成贪婪。

译文赏析

Every man who rises above the common level has received two educationsthe first from his teachersthe secondmore personal and importantfrom himself.

每一个能够从众人中脱颖而出的人,他所受的教育不外乎两种:一种是从师,另外一种是自学。后者尤为重要,也更显个性。

芸芸众生中脱颖而出的人往往接受过两种教育,一种来自老师,另一种来自个人。而来自个人的,更直接,也更重要。

Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man; Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确,读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞学使人善辩

6.3 Transformative Consideration

     Nida says: “In terms of certain concepts arising from generative-transformation grammar, the analytical process consists primarily in determining the underlying meaning. The transfer normally takes place on this underlying level, since languages appear to be more alike in their substructures than in their surface structures” And so in some sense, translation is a kind of transformation from the surface structures to the substructure and vice versa. And then in translation, supplementation is necessary at several levels.

6.3.1 At the Lexical Level

Society then had not lost its exclusiveness.

那时的上流社会仍然焕发着奇光异彩,而且森严壁垒,不容下层人涉足。

He had not talked to a white-man for months. He began to tell stories.

他已数日没有对白人开怀谈话了,于是他开始滔滔不绝起来。

The cruel master grudged him even the food he ate.

他残忍的主人很吝啬,连三顿饭都不让他吃饱。

6.3.2 At the Phrase Level

When he came to, he could not, for a moment, recognize his surroundings.

等他恢复知觉,一时认不出周围的一切。

Some trickster had fobbed him off with this story.

那个骗子编出这些鬼话使他背了黑锅。

6.3.3 At the Sentence Level

They went in to dinner. It was excellent, and the wine was good. Its influence presently had its effect on them. They talked not only without acrimony, but even with friendliness.

他们进去吃饭。菜肴极丰富,酒也好。他们喝着酒,吃着菜,气氛顿时起了变化。言谈间不仅没有恶言恶语,还充满友好的情谊。

Don’t be a damned food. Remember I’m not a gentleman. I know how to use my hands.

放聪明点,别忘了,我不是什么正人君子,我的拳头可不是吃素的。

The shortest cut would take us five hours to get there.

即使走捷径也要五个小时才能到达。

6.3.4 At the Discourse Level

The boy who remained faithful to him, knew how to cook native food.

那个勉强留在他身边的仆人只会做当地的饭菜。

We rounded just such a cape toward sunset, the most easterly point of a continent, dramatically high and lonely, a great purple mountain overhung by a great purple cloud.

将尽落日时分,我们正好绕过这样一个海角。海角位于大陆最东端,挺拔兀立,引人注目。这是一座紫色的大山,笼罩在一大片紫红色的云雾中。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 7 Repetition  

First, try to translate the following sentences:

He was particularly interested in the articles on and by Lu Xun.

他对关于鲁迅的文章及鲁迅所写的文章尤其感兴趣。

Her husband’s murder shook her faith not only in the legal systembut in people as well.

她的丈夫遇害一事,不仅动摇了她对法制的信念,而且使他失去了对人的信任。

分析:“shook” “faith” 两词在译文中作了重复翻译. “ Faith” 针对法制而言,译成信念;针对而言,译成信任“shook”针对信念而言,译成动摇;针对信任而言,译成失去。这样处理后的汉语译文,语义非常清晰明确。

Emphasis is an important element in both English and Chinese expressions. It is wiedely used to avoid obscurity and ambiguity. But the two languages differ in the ways to get emphasis. In rhetoric emphasis is used to make the speech effective and vivid. In translation, we have, according to the context, three purposes for repetition: repetition for clearness; repetition for force and repetition for vividness.

7.1 Repeition for Clearness

     In our discourse, obscurity is cured by logical arranging of words or word groups in accordance with good usage of the language. And ambiguity is often remedied by skilful repetition of words in translation. For the sake of clearness we can do repetition in many ways.

7.1.1 Repetiting Nouns

1. 重复英语中作宾语的名词

Students must be cultivated to have the ability to analyze and solve problems.

必须培养学生分析问题和解决问题的能力。

They would be very reluctant to postpone or cancel the meeting.

他们不愿意推迟这个会议或者取消这个会议。

People use natural science to understand and change nature.

人类利用自然科学去了解自然、改造自然。

2. 重复英语中作表语的名词

3. 重复英语介词前所省略的名词

英语中常重复使用介词,而将第二个、第三个介词前的名词省略,翻译时则往往可以重复这些省略的名词。

Bombing foreign embassy is a clear violation of international law—in particular of the Geneva Convention.

轰炸外国大使馆显然违反了国际法,尤其是违反了〈日内瓦公约〉。

We caught a glimpse of the leading motorcycles and of motorcyclist falling down upon the ground.

我们瞥见了最前面的几辆摩托车,还瞥见了一个摩托车手摔倒在地。

4. 重复定语从句中作先行词的名词

英语定语从句常用关系词引导,它一方面代表定语从句所修饰的那个先行词(通常是名词、名词短语或代词),一方面在从句中担任一个成分。汉语中没有关系词,往往需要重复这个作先行词的名词。

He gave ma a book which I kept to this day.

他曾经送给我一本书。这本书我一直保存至今。

Yesterday afternoon, I met an old friend of mine, who said that he would go abroad the next week.

昨天下午,我遇到了一位老朋友。这位老朋友告诉我说他下个星期要出国去。

5. 英语中的同位语,在译文中有时也可以采用重复法来翻译。

7.1.2 Repetiting Verbs

1. 英语句子常用一个动词连接几个宾语或表语,在译文中往往要重复这个动词。

Light travels more quickly than sound does.

光传播的速度比声音传播速度快得多。

You can do that work very well if you want to.

如果你愿意做那项工作,你就能做得很好。

Plant growth needs sunshine, air and water as well.

植物生长需要阳光,需要空气,也同样需要水分。

The robot has accomplished the assigned task and excellently indeed.

机器人完成了指定的任务,而且确实完成得很出色。

2. 英语句子中动词后有介词时,在第二次或者第三次往往只用介词而省略动词,在汉语译文中则要重复动词以代替英语中重复的前置词。

When I went with him to the meetingI had never spoken in public. I knew nothing about public meetings or their order.

译文: 当我跟着他去参加会议时,我从未在公开场合讲过话。对于公众集会一无所知,也不知道有些什么规矩。

分析:英文中or是并列连词,相连两部分都是knew nothing about的宾语,这种多枝共干的结构在英语中十分普遍,而汉语则喜欢分开处理,变成一枝一干的结构。

此处使用了同义词重复。一无所知 也不知道在字面上并不重复,所以并不给人以语言贫乏的感觉。

7.1.3 Repetiting Pronouns

1. 英语代词的使用非常频繁,汉语中除非必要,一般不宜多用代词。因此,在翻译中,除了适当地将原文中的一些代词直译外,还经常将某些代词所替代的名词重复译出,以使译文意思清楚明了。

The silks of China are better than those of any other countries.

中国的绸缎比任何其他国家的绸缎都要好。

Translation from English into Chinese is not so easy as that from English into French.

英译汉不如英译法容易。

He hated failure; he had conquered it all his life, risen above it, despised it in others.

他讨厌失败,他一生中曾战胜失败,超越失败,并且藐视别人的失败。

We have advocated the principle of peaceful coexistence, which is now growing more and more popular among the nations of Asia and Africa.

我们提倡和平共处的原则,这个原则目前在亚非各国越来越得人心了。

分析:如把“which”译成,会产生歧义。

And their conclusions are not pie in the sky—they’re based on an astonishing experiment in which a dog was frozen for 15 minutes, but then revived in perfect heath.

他们的结论可不是天上掉馅饼,异想天开得来的,那是有实验做依据的。在那次令人惊讶的实验中,一只狗冷冻了15分钟后复活,而且十分健康。

2. 英语中用物主代词its, his, their等等以代替句中作主语的名词(有时附有修饰语)时,翻译时往往可以不用代词而重复其作主语的名词(有时附有修饰语),以达到明确具体的目的。

The old vagrant believes that poverty has its advantages.

那个老流浪汉认为穷也有穷的好处。

Each man has his own way of making friends.

各人有各人的交友之道。

3. 英语中的关系代词或关系副词whoever, whenever, wherever等等,在翻译时,往往使用重复法处理。

Wherever there is plenty of sun and rain, the fields are green.

哪里阳光雨水充足,哪里的田野就绿油油。

4. 英语用some... and others... (some..., others...)连用的句子,译成汉语时主语往往是谓语重复形式的字结构,有时也可以用有的...,有的...”或者一些...,一些....”的句式。

7.1.4 Repetiting Synonyms

为了使译文明确具体,除了上面谈到的一些重复手段外,还有一种情况:英语原文没有重复,在翻译的时候,可以在汉语译文中采用重复法或者用同义词来重复。

Please wait a moment.

请等一等。

I had met with great difficulty in learning organic chemistry.

在学有机化学这门课程的时候,我碰到了重重困难。

最后,需要注意的是,重复法也不可盲目滥用。否则,过度重复会使译文罗嗦累赘、单调乏味。只有在准确理解原文的基础上,灵活运用重复法才能让译文表达得更加准确、更加通顺。

The cities utilize these funds for educationpolice and fire departmentspublic works and municipal buildings. (增加动词)

各个城市都在利用专项基金发展教育,利用专项基金完善公安系统和消防系统,利用专项基金建设公共工程和市政大楼。(没必要重复)

 试译下列句子

1. Ignorance is the mother of fear as well as of admiration.

无知是恐惧的根源,也是羡慕的根源。

2. People forget your face first, then your name.

人们首先忘记你的容貌,接着又忘记你的名字。

3. For a good ten minutes, he cursed me and my brother.

足足有十分钟之久,他既骂我,又骂我的兄弟。

4. We should think more of others than of ourselves.

我们应当多为别人着想,少为自己着想。

5. Atmospheric pressure  decreases with increase in altitude and so does the density of the atmosphere.

大气压力随高度增加而降低,大气密度也随高度增加而降低。

6. The letter V represents “very”, I “important”, and P “person”. That’s what VIP means.

字母V代表非常,I代表重要的,P代表人物。这就是VIP所代表的意思。

7.  A scientist constantly tries to defeat his hypotheses, his theories, and his conclusion.

一个科学总是试图推翻自己的假设、否定自己的理论、放弃自己的结论。

8. The best of all governments is that which teaches us to govern ourselves.

9. You have your business and I have mine.

你有你的事,我有我的事。

10. If you want to go you may; I have no objection to your going.

你如果想走,可以走,我不会反对的。

11. Rain or shine, I’ll go there.

雨也罢,晴也罢,我都要去。

12. She became a famous actress—all by herself.

她成了名演员一个完全靠个人奋斗成功的名演员。

13. This used to be Japan’s position—but not China’s.

这曾经是日本的立场而不是中国的立场。

14. He spends most of his money not only on books, but on paintings.

他大部分钱不仅用于购书,而且也用于购画。

15. Ours will no longer be a nation subject to insult and humiliation.

我们的民族将再也不是一个任人侮辱的民族了。

16. This is absolutely necessary and perfectly just, and the whole nation understands that it is so.

这是完全必要的和完全正义的,全国人民都明白这种必要性和正义性。

17. Revolution means the emancipation of the productive forces, and so does reform.

革命是解放生产力,改革也是解放生产力。

7.2 Repetiting for Force

As has been discussed, emphasis is to be secured by skillful repeating the important words. This principle holds true both in English and Chinese. In translation, such kind of repetition should be maintained in the Chinese version, or emphasis is to be secured in some other ways.

Work while you work, play while you play.

分析:英语原文中有词的重复,汉译时可以保持同样的重复。

译文:工作时工作,游戏时就游戏。

We will never parley. We will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gang.

我们决不谈判。我们决不与希特勒或他的任何帮凶协商。

We will fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air, until, with god’s help, we have rid the earth of his shadow and liberated its people from his yoke.

我们将在陆地上与他作战,我们将与海上与他作战,我们将在天空与他作战,直至在上帝的帮助下,从地球上彻底驱除他的阴影,从他的枷锁中解救其人民。

7.3 Repetition for Vividness

As has been discussed in the very beginning of the lecture, repetition is widely used to secure emphasis not only in English but also in Chinese. To make the version natural and idiomatic, we may use the Chinese rhetorical device of repetition here and there though are no equivalent devices in the original.

7.3.1 The Repetition by Means of Reduplicated Syllables (采用AA AA AA等形式)

Try and do it again. 再做做看。

If you go to Paris, don’t forget to see Mary. 如果你去巴黎,别忘了去看一看玛丽。

The miller smiled and said…. 磨坊主人笑了笑说……

He stamped off, growling as he went. 他跺了跺脚,满腹牢骚地走开了。

7.3.2 运用词的重叠 AAAABB结构)

The kid is always in rags, as if he were an orphan.

那个孩子总是穿得破破烂烂,就像个孤儿似的。

He only knows that it was Mary who nursed him day and night.

他只知道,正是玛丽日日夜夜护理着他。 

As usual his experiment report was all written out neatly.

他的实验报告像通常那样写得清清楚楚。

Only a very slight and very scattering ripples of half-hearted hand-clapping greeted him.

欢迎他的只有几下轻轻的、零零落落、冷冷淡淡的掌声。

7.3.3运用两个四字词组

作为汉语一大特点的四字词组,意义比较精练,读起来琅琅上口,有节奏感,如运用恰当,可使文学生动活泼,增强修辞效果。在符合忠实、通顺的标准前提下,在译文中可酌情运用两个同义或近义的四字词组。

During the Second World War, China had been overrun by Japanese invaders.

二战期间,日本侵略者在中国横行霸道,无恶不作。

Target priorities were established there.

目标的轻重缓急,孰先孰后,是在那里决定的。

He showed himself calm in emergency situation.

他在情况危急时,态度从容,镇定自若。

The questions were evidently unexpected to the slow-witted spokesman, who instantly found himself tongue-tied.

这些问题显然使得这位反应迟钝的发言人感到意外,他立即显得张口结舌,哑口无言。

7.3.4 运用四字对偶词组

汉语中许多四字对偶词组是我们熟知的,这种词组中前后两对词组形成对偶,往往具有相同或类似的。英译汉时可恰当使用,以达到生动活泼的效果。如:

Arrogance骄傲自大

Eternal glory to 永垂不朽

Vivid生动活泼

A mixed accent  南腔北调

By hook and brook千方百计

Calm泰然自若

Careless粗心大意

Deep hatred深仇大恨

Earth-shaking惊天动地

Ever-changing日新月异

Prosperity繁荣昌盛

Gratitude 感恩戴德

Ignorant愚味无知

In chaos乌烟瘴气

Ingratitude忘恩负义

Great contributions丰功伟绩

Outlandish clothes奇装异服

Rumors流言蜚语

Strange tale奇谈怪论

Talk nonsense胡言乱语

Street gossip街谈巷议

His anger vanished and he burst out laughing.

他的怒气烟消云散,转而放声大笑。

Scientific exploration, the search for knowledge has given man the practical results of being able to shield himself from the calamities of nature and the calamities imposed by other men.

科学的探索,知识的追求,使人类获得了避免天灾人祸的实力。

The trial, in his opinion, was absolutely fair.

据他看来,这次审判是绝对公平合理的。

Don’t fancy any longer. To you he is absolutely a man of loyalty.

别再胡思乱想了,他对你绝对是一心一意的。

He was admittedly shy.他是以腼腆胆怯著称的。

If it was a time of triumph for the many, it was a painful period for the few.

多数人兴高采烈之日,却是少数人伤心失意之时。

当然,四字对偶词组的使用必须适度,不可滥用。切勿一见到 tears 就译成热泪盈眶,一看到old 修饰woman 就译成人老珠黄。否则,译文就会因辞害义,不

With his tardiness, carelessness and appalling good temper, we had nothing to do with him.

他老是磨磨蹭蹭,马马虎虎,脾气又好得惊人,我们都对他毫无办法。

译文赏析

寻寻觅觅,冷冷清请,

凄凄惨惨戚戚;

乍暖还寒时侯,最难将息。

(译文1

Seek, seek; search, search;

Cold, cold; bare, bare

Grief, grief; cruel, cruel grief.

Now warm, then like the autumn cold again,

How hard to calm the heart!

(译文2

I seek but seek in vain,

I search and search again;

I feel so sad, so drear,

So lonely, without cheer.                             (许渊冲译)

天苍苍, 野茫茫,

风吹草低见牛羊。

The sky is blue, blue;

And the steppe wide, wide;

Over grass that the wind has battered low;

Sheep and oxen roam

青青河边草,  郁郁园中柳。

Green grows the grass upon the bank,

The willow shoots are long and lank.

 

My sweet, clever, attractive, economical, sensible little girl, free at last.

我那性子又好、又聪明、又好看、又会当家、又识大体的女儿,这可自由了。(吕叔湘)

赏析:吕先生的这句译文是翻译界公认的佳译。译句几乎是顺着原句逐字直译的,原句分两个句段,前长后短,传达了原文形的美(句子前长后短,象征了说话人经过了很长时间的期待,终于看到女儿自由了,迫不及待地与外人道的欣喜)。原句中几个词也译得很好:"sweet"译为性子好(用在这里似乎没有比这更恰当的了),"economical"译为会当家"sensible"译为识大体,都是精雕细琢的结果。

试译下列句子

1. There are exceptions to every rule.

条条规则都有例外。

2. I had been completely honest in my replies, withholding nothing.

我的回答完全是坦坦荡荡,直言无隐。

3. Few people realized how hard Edison worked, often twenty hours a day.

很少有人知道,爱迪生是如何辛辛苦苦工作的,常常一天工作20小时。

4. He stood there, his whole attention fixed upon the motions of her finger.

他站在那里一动不动,聚精会神地注意她手指的动作。

5. One of the characteristics of light is that it travels in all directions from the sources of light.

光的一个特性是从其光源向四面八方传播。

6. Many black parents, angered by the way their children were treated, accused the school of gross ingratitude and cowardice.

许多黑人家长对那样对待他们的孩子感到愤慨,他们指责校方十足地忘恩负义、胆小怕事。

 

Lecture 8 Omission   

Omission is a technique opposite to amplification. True, a translator has no right to subtract any meaning from the original work. But it does not follow that he should refrain from omitting any words at all in translation. In fact, one of the marked differences in syntax between English and Chinese is the disparity in wording. What is regarded as a natural or indispensable element in one language may be regarded as superfluous or even "a stumbling block" in the other. Take the following English sentence and its Chinese version for example:

Original English: The time-keeping devices of electronic watches are much more accurate than those of mechanical ones.

Chinese Version: 电子表比机械表准确得多。

A comparison between the Chinese version with the English original shows that many of the "redundant" English words have been omitted in the Chinese translation, otherwise, the Chinese sentence would sound wordy and unnatural. Therefore, a manipulation of the technique "omission" is always called for in English-Chinese translation. On the other hand, some Chinese sentences, when translated into English, also need to be rid of redundant wording so as to conform to idiomatic English expressions.

More esamples:

1. It is snowing.

译文一:它正在下雪。(×

译文二:下雪了/在下雪。

    分析:译文一字字对应译出,貌似忠实,但完全不合汉语表达习惯,实是错误译法。

2. Dr John resumed his experiment as soon as he came into the laboratory.

译文一:约翰博士一到实验室,他就继续做实验。(×

译文二:约翰博士一到实验室就继续做实验。

分析:译文一将主从句的主语都译出,貌似忠实,但产生歧义,可能让人以为约翰博士是两个人。

3. We took this opportunity to inform you that we are now in a position to make a prompt shipment of the merchandise.

译文一:我们借此机会告知你们现在我们可以立即装运那批货物。

译文二:兹奉告,该商品可即期装运。(简洁明确,公文惯例)

分析:译文二省却了 “take this opportunity”“in a position”等词语,还省译了三个人称代词,使译文更加符合汉语涉外文书的行文习惯。

Generally speaking, omission in English-Chinese translation is used to achieve the effect of succinctness, especially in dealing with excessive use of English pronouns and such functional words as the article, the preposition, the conjunction, etc. In translation, we have, according to the context, two purposes for omission: Grammatical Consideration and Rhetoric Consideration.

8.1 Grammatical Considertaion

8.1.1Omission of Pronouns

I had many wonderful ideas, but I only put a few into practice.

我有很多美妙的想法,但是只把少数付诸实践了。

Order is order, we cannot complain, we cannot bargain, we cannot question and we cannot suggest chages.

命令就是命令,不得抱怨,不得讨价还价,不得质疑,不得建议修改。

The significance of a man is not in what he attained but rather in what he longs to attain.

人生的意义不在于已经获取的,而在于渴望得到什么样的东西。

We have seven days in a week.

一个星期有七天。

He is a good friend that speaks well of us behind our backs.

在背后说我们好话的人才是一个好朋友。

Please take off the old picture and throw it away.

请把那张旧画取下来扔掉。

She looked at him as if to thank him for it.

她瞧着他,眼睛里流露出感激之情。

She listened to me with her rounded eyes.

她睁大双眼,听我说话。

We should concern ourselves here only with the structure of atoms.

这里我们只论述原子的结构。

It is the people who are really powerful.

人民才是最强大的。

It is only shallow people who judge by appearance.

只有浅薄的人才会以貌取人。

It is better to do well than to speak well.

说得好不如做得好。

8.1.2 Ommission of Connectives

The sun is bright, and the sky is clear. (省略并列连词and

阳光明媚,晴空万里。

As it is late, you had better go home.

时间不早了,你最好回家去吧。(省略表示原因的连接词)

Sunday is the day when I was least busy.(省略表示时间的连接词)

周日我最闲。

8.1.3 Omission Articles

It is out of the question to fly to the moon in the past.

在过去,飞往月球是绝对办不到的事情。(省略定冠词The

The sun is setting down beyond the western hill.

日落西山。

The fear of being alone is a primary reason they are staying together.

对孤独的恐惧是他们走到一起的最主要原因。

This is the book you wanted.

这就是你要的那本书。

I lost a bat and a ball. The bat was found, but the ball was gone.

我丢了一根球棒和一个球。球棒找到了,但那个球却找不到了。

8.1.4 Omission of Prepositions

On July 1, 1997, Hongkong returned to the People’s Republic of China.

一九九七年七月,香港回归了中华人民共和国。

The space shuttle will return to earth on Monday next as scheduled.

下星期一航天飞机将如期返回地面。

In winter, it is much colder in the North than it is in the South.

冬天,北方的天气比南方冷得多。

     In translation. the preprosition after the verbs are usually remained.

I stayed in my brother’s house.

我住在弟弟家里。

8.1.5 Omission of Verbs

Delivery must be effected within the time stated on the purchase order.

必须在购货单规定的时间交货。

When the pressure gets low, the boiling-point becomes low. (省略动词)

气压低,沸点就低。

The power plant gives factories its constant supply of electricity.(省略动词)

该电厂源源不断地向工厂提供电力。

8.2 Rhetoric Consideration

8.2.1Omission of Some Repeteated Words or Phrases

Neither party shall cancel the contract without sufficient cause or reason.

双方均不得无故解除合同。

The late Mr. James had passed to her Maker somewhere about 1930.

詹姆士先生升天大约是在1930年。

比较:已故的詹姆士先生升天大约是在1930年。

8.2.2 Omission of Some Words or Phrases that are not Necessary in Idiomatic Chinese

As it happens, we did not meet there.

我们并未在那里碰头。

China is also a country of people with a passionate love of flowers and trees and intense dedication to the welfare of children and to the work ethic.

中国人还热爱鲜花和树木,专心致志献身于造福儿童的事业,并恪守工作道德。

比较:中国也是这个一个国家,它的人民……

For our part, we fully realized that, to avoid the possibility of any further cease-fire violations, the troops must be withdrawn.

我们充分认识到,要避免继续违反停火的可能,必须实现撤军。

She curtseyed again, and would have blushed deeper, if she could have blushed deeper than she has blushed all the time.

她又行了个屈膝礼,由于她的脸一直涨得通红,所以现在不可能涨得更红了。

  

1. 省译法不是任意省略、删减。从以上各例句中不难看出,某些词语如果不删减,译文必定不够简洁,或累赘不堪,甚至影响整体意思的表达。采用省略法不仅使译文读起来流畅、自然,而且突出了原文的整体意思。

2. 应该特别注意的是,省略绝不能影响原文的中心思想和整体意思,否则就是违背忠实这一基本原则。从原则上讲,翻译不能对原文内容作任何删减,所以,采用省略法必须以不损害原文的内容为前提。

3. 与增译法(amplification)相比,减省的情况要少得多,所以省略法要慎用,绝不可想删就删,随心所欲。

试译下列句子

1. The purpose of insurance is to provide protection against financial loss at a reasonable cost. (省略冠词)

保险的目的是以合理的代价防备经济损失。

2.  We assure you of our prompt attention to this matter. (省略代词)

我们保证立即处理此事。

3. If your TV set does not work properly, you’d better not have it fixed. Just buy a new one.  (省略代词)

电视有毛病,最好别去修,干脆买台新的。

4.  Why do we feel cooler when we fan ourselves? (省略代词)

扇扇子时我们为什么感到凉快些?

5. It is too late for another try. (省略it

再试一次太迟了。

6. It’s so noisy in the bar and I can’t bear it. (省略it

酒吧里太嘈杂,我受不了。

7. It was clearly the headmaster himself that opened the door. (省略it

显然是校长本人开的门。

8. There are a variety of population problems in all parts of the world. (省略前置词)

世界各地存在着各种各样的人口问题。

9. Europeans came to the Japanese Islands in the 16th century.

16世纪欧洲人到达日本岛。

10. Isaac Newton, theoretical physicist and mathematician, was born in 1642.

理论物理学家和数学家伊萨克·牛顿诞生于1642年。

11. There must be some people in the room, for I heard a voice. (省略连词)

屋里准有人,我听见人说话声。

12. Telephone communication is now widespread and efficient. (省略连词)

现在电话通讯广泛有效。

13. This was a masterly appointment. (省略动词)

这个任命实在高明。

14. These developing countries cover vast territories, encompass (V,包含,包括) a large population and aboundV,富于) in natural resources. (省略动词)

这些发展中国家,幅员辽阔、人口众多、资源丰富。

15. Stainless steels possess good hardness and high strength. (省略动词)

不锈钢硬度大、强度高。

16. It is desirable that the meeting should be held as soon as possible.

希望这次会议尽早召开。

17. We have tested 200 types of cloth, none of which is completely waterproof.

分析:of which省略不译。

我们已经试验了200种布料,没有一种能完全防水。

18. We had learned a lot from the workers and technicians.

 分析:名词复数省略不译。

我们从工人和技术人员那里学了不少东西。

19. The cessation of the present restrictions cannot be made.

这些限制目前尚不能取消。

20. Their respective destiny are becoming increasingly interdependent.

他们的命运日益休戚相关。

比较:他们各自的命运……

21. Before the night was far advanced, they began to move against the enemy.
入夜不久,他们开始过进击敌人。

比较:在天色已晚,但是夜还不深的时候……

22. One must make painstaking effort before one could succeed in mastering a foreign language.

要掌握一门外语,非下苦工夫不可。

23.  I can finish the work so long as you give me time.

给我时间,我就能完成这项工作。

24. We are looking forward with interest to you reply.

译文一:我们带着极大的兴趣盼望贵方的答复。

译文二:盼复。(精确明了)

 

译文比较与赏析

1. I love my love with an E, because she’s enticing; I hate her with an E, because she’s engaged; I took her to the sign of the exquisite, and treated her with an elopement; her name’s Emily, and she lives in the East. ( Charles Dickens, David Copperfield)

分析:这段英文原文中有六个以“e” 起首的单词(enticing, engaged, exquisite, elopement Emily east), 说话人在玩文字游戏。这类文本翻译起来有定的难度,甚至被认为是不可译的。但译者如能发挥主观能动性,发挥译语的优势,还是可以译成效果和原文相似的译文的。

译文一:我爱我的爱人为了一个E,因为他是Enticing(迷人的);我恨我的爱人为了一个E,因为她是Engaged(订了婚了);我说我的爱人象征Exquisite(美妙),我劝我的爱人从事Elopement(私奔),她的名字是Emily(爱弥丽),他的住处在East(东方)。

译文二:我爱我的爱人,因为她很迷人;我恨我的爱人,因已许配他人;她在我心中是美人,我带她私奔,以避开外人;她名叫虞美人,是东方丽人。(转引自 《中国翻译》,1996年第6期)

译文三:吾爱吾爱,因伊可爱;吾恨吾爱,因伊另有所爱。吾视吾爱,神圣之爱,吾携吾爱,私逃为爱;吾爱名爱米丽,吾东方之爱。(转引自 《中国翻译》,1996年第6期)

译文四:我爱我的那个,可爱迷人有魅力;我恨我的那个,要和他人结伉俪;她文雅大方又美丽,和我出逃去游历;她芳名就叫爱米丽,家住东方人俏丽。(马红军 译)

评析:

译文一:保留原文个别词语及字母E,是异化翻译的一个例证。

译文二:个别句子太长,不易上口,美感不足。虞美人归化过火。

译文三:属文言文,太正式,符合原文的语境,与说话人的身份不符。

译文四:音韵美感突出,琅琅上口,归化有

2. 原文:It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

译文:世事皆利弊并存。

赏析:原句结构比较特殊("It is ... that ..."),理解起来有点困难。对谁都没有好处的风才是坏风,也就是说大多数情况下风对人都是有好处、有坏处,在引申一步就是成了上面的译句。林佩耵在《中英对译技巧》一书中(第68页)还给了几个相同结构的英文句子。翻译的前提是理解。有人指出。市面上见到的翻译作品,有好多都带有因理解不正确而产生的低级错误,都谈不上还妄谈什么!初学翻译的朋友,在理解原文上当不遗余力。
3.
原文:Their language was almost unrestrained by any motive of prudence.

译文:他们几乎爱讲什么就讲什么,全然不考虑什么谨慎不谨慎。

赏析:如果硬译,译文势必成了他们的言论几乎不受任何深思熟虑的动机的约束。译者本其译,化其滞,将原句一拆为二,充分运用相关翻译技巧,译文忠实、通顺。

4. 原文:Get a livelihood,and then practise virtue.

译文:先谋生而后修身。(钱钟书译)

赏析:原句是祈使句,译句也传达出了训导的意味。用谋生来译“Get a livelihood",用修身来译“practise virtue",可谓精当。巧的是,原句七个词,译句也是七个汉字。

5. 原文:I enjoy the clean voluptuousness of the warm breeze on my skin and the cool support of water.  

译文:我喜爱那洁净的暖风吹拂在我的皮肤上使我陶然欲醉,也喜爱那清亮的流水把我的身体托浮在水面。(章振邦译)

  赏析:"voluptuousness"不会"clean","breeze""clean","support"不会"cool","water""cool",这种甲乙两项相关联,就把原属于形容甲的修饰语移属于乙的修饰手法叫移就”(transferred epithet)(《英语修辞赏析》,第145页)。在翻译带有移就修辞手法的英语句子时,有时需要按照汉语习惯将属于甲的修饰语还给甲,章振邦先生在这个译例里就做了这种处理。除此之外,译者还进行了结构上的调整,将原句拆译为两个排比句,加强了译句的表现力。译句的选词也极为考究,整个译句读来音韵流动,口齿生香。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 9 Affirmation and Negation

As some linguists have pointed out, every language has its peculiarities in negation. And there is indeed an important, though often neglected, difference between English and Chinese in negation. It is a difference in the way of thinking and in the mode of speaking. A close study of them may shed light on this discrepancy.

Let’s look at some examples:

Keep upright. 切勿倒置

Admission by invitation only. 非请莫入

If it rains in Cleveland today, volunteers will stand in lines with umbrellas to keep voters dry.

如果今天克里弗兰下雨,志愿者将打着伞排着队,以免选民淋湿。

If any mater should be added after this contract comes into force, then such a matter shall be agreed upon by both sides through friendly consultations and confirmed by means of exchanging official documents.

本合同生效后如有未尽事宜,须经双方友好协商同意,并交换正式文本以确认

游泳必须戴泳帽。(正)

No swimming without cap.(反)

办公场地,游人勿进。 (反)

Office area, staff only.   (正)

From the above illustrations we may see clearly that what is affirmative in form in one language may often mean something negative in another. Generally speaking, English negative words and expressions fall into the following categories:

(1) “Full negatives”: no, not, none, never, nothing, nobody, nowhere, neither, nor;

(2) “Semi negatives”: hardly, scarcely, seldom, barely, few, little, etc.

(3) “Partial negatives”: not every, not all, not both, not much, not many, not always, etc.

(4) “Words with negative implication”: fail, without, beyond, until, unless, lest, ignorant, refrain, refuse, neglect, absence, instead of, other than, except, rather than etc.

When translated into Chinese, these negative words should be readjusted according to different context. And the following are various cases of negation in E-C translation.

9.1 Affirmative in English, but Negative in Chinese

·Such a chance was denied (to) me. (v.) 我没有得到这样一个机会。

·Time is what we want mostbut whatalasmany use worst. (adv.) 时间是我们最缺少的,但可叹之至,偏偏许多人最不善于利用。

·I have read your article. I expect to meet an older man. (adj.) 拜读了你的大作,没想到你这样年轻。

·It was beyond his power to sign such a contract. (prep.) 他无权签定这种合同。

·The guerrillas would rather fight to death before they surrendered. (conj.) 游击队员们宁愿战斗到死也决不投降。

·They feel great anxiety about his sickness. (n.) 他们对他的病情感到焦虑不安。

·The criminal is still at large. (phrase) 罪犯还未捉拿归案。

·If it worked once, it can work twice. (sentence) 一次得手,再次不愁。

9.2 Negative in English, but Affirmative in Chinese

This is just opposite to the previous case.

·The doubt was still unsolved after his repeated explanation. (v.) 虽经他一再解释,疑团仍然存在。

·He carelessly glanced through the note and got away. (adv.) 他马马虎虎地看了看那张便条就走了。

·All the articles are untouchable in the museum. (adj.) 博物馆内一切展品禁止触摸。

·He manifested a strong dislike for his father’s business. (n.) 他对他父亲的行业表示强烈的厌恶情绪。

·Don’t lose time in posting this letter. (phrase) 赶快把这封信寄出去。

·Such flight couldn’t long escape notice. (sentence) 这类飞行迟早会被人发觉的。

9.3 Same English Words, with Either Affirmative or Negative Equivalents in Chinese

·I’m new to the work. 这工作我是生手。(这工作我不熟悉)

·He is free with his money. 他花钱大手大脚。(他花钱从不吝啬)

·He realized that he was in trouble. 他意识到遇到麻烦了。(他感到自己的处境不妙)

·The station is no distance at all. 车站近在咫尺。(车站一点儿也不远)

·It’s no less than a fraud. 这简直是一场骗局。(这无异于一场骗局)

·The works of art were left intact, the money gone. 艺术品还在,钱却不翼而飞。 (艺术品原封未动,钱却不翼而飞。)

9.4 Double Negative for Emphasis

Double negative in English, as in Chinese, is used for emphasis. In this case we may either drop both the negative word or keep to the original, depending on which version is idiomatic in Chinese.

·There is no rule that has no exception. 任何规则都有例外。

·There is not any advantage without disadvantage. 有一利必有一弊。

·It never rains but it pours.不雨则已,雨必倾盆。

·It is impossible but that a man will make some mistakes.人不会不犯错误。

·I am not reluctant to accept your proposal. 你的建议我愿意接受。

·Its significance and importance can never be overemphasized. 它的意义和重要性,不管怎样强调,也不算过分。

9.5 Roundabout Affirmative

This is an indirect way of expressing a strong affirmative, and when translated into Chinese, the emotion of the original should be properly kept.

·He didn’t half like the girl. 他非常喜欢那姑娘。

·I couldn’t feel better. 我觉得身体好极了。

·I couldn’t agree with you more. 我太赞成你的看法了。

·If that isn’t what I want! 我所要的就是这个呀!

·He can’t see you quick enough. 他很想尽快和你见面。

9.6 Some Traps in Negative Structure

In the practice of translation, we may find now and then that some negative structures can hardly be rendered into Chinese literallyand sometimes even their original meaning could be elusive. This is where we are liable to make blunders. The following are some typical patterns that call for attention.

(1) not…because

·The engine didn’t stop because the fuel was finished. 引擎并不是因为燃料耗尽而停止运转。

·Don’t scamp your work because you are pressed for time. 不要因为时间紧而敷衍塞责。

· In that city, we had never suffered discrimination because we were Jews. 我们在那个城市从未因为是犹太人而遭受歧视。

·This version is not placed first because it is simple. 此方案并不因为简易而放在首位。

(2) cannot…too

· The importance of this conference cannot be overestimated. 这次会议的重要性无论怎么强调也不过分。

· I shall never be able to stress too much for your kindness. 不管我怎么感谢你,都不足以报恩于万一。

·You cannot be too careful in proofreading. 校对时,越仔细越好。

(3) all/everynot

·All that glitters is not gold. 发光的不一定都是金子。

·All cities did not look like as they do today. 在过去,城市并不都像今天这样个个千篇一律。

·No, everything is not straightened out. 不,并非每一个问题都弄清楚了。

(4) bothnot

·But you seewe both cannot go. 但是我告诉你,我们俩不能同时都走。

·Both the instruments are not precision ones. 这件东西不都是精密仪器。

·Both read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; each invokes His aid against the other. The prayers of both could not be answered. 双方念的是同一本圣经; 拜的是同一个上帝,但各方都要求上帝帮助去打倒对方,所以,双方的祈求不可能都得到满足。

(5) for all

·You may leave at once for all I care. 你尽可立即离开,我才不管呢。

·He seemed as fresh as ever, for all that I never saw him drink or eat. 尽管我从未见到他喝点什么或吃点什么,他似乎仍然精神饱满。

(6) It be adj. n. that

·It is a good workman that never blunders 智者千虑,必有一失。

·It is a long lane that has no end.  路必有弯。(凡事总有变化,不会永远不变)

·It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 坏事未必对人人都有害处。

正译法和反译法:这两种方法通常用于汉译英,偶尔也用于英译汉。所谓正译,是指把句子按照与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。所谓反译则是指把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成英语。正译与反译常常具有同义的效果,但反译往往更符合英语的思维方式和表达习惯。因此比较地道。如:

1 在美国,人人都能买到枪。

In the United States, everyone can buy a gun. (正译)

In the United States, guns are available to everyone. (反译)

2 你可以从因特网上获得这一信息。

You can obtain this information on the Internet. (正译)

This information is accessible/available on the Internet. (反译)

3 他突然想到了一个新主意。

Suddenly he had a new idea. (正译)

He suddenly thought out a new idea. (正译)

A new idea suddenly occurred to/struck him. (反译)

4 他仍然没有弄懂我的意思。

He still could not understand me. (正译)

Still he failed to understand me. (反译)

5 无论如何,她算不上一位思维敏捷的学生。

She can hardly be rated as a bright student. (正译)

She is anything but a bright student. (反译)

6 Please withhold the document for the time being.

请暂时扣下这份文件。(正译)

请暂时不要发这份文件。(反译)

从下面的例句中,可以体会正说反译,反说正译在翻译中使用的一些情况。

1. Africa is not kicking out Western Imperialism in order to invite other new masters.

非洲踢出西方帝国主义②并不是为了请进其他新的主子。

(假如不运用正说反译,反说正译这一技巧,译文就会成为:非洲不踢出西方帝国主义为了请进其它新的主子。其义则大相径庭。)

试译:He didn’t love her because she was beautiful.

2. The world today is far from peaceful.

今天的世界还很不安宁。

far from是一个形式上肯定而含有否定意义的短语或词组,所以要正说反译。)

3.我们的人民解放军无愧于伟大的人民军队的称号。

Our PLA is worthy of being called a great army of the people.

4. 窗户打不开。

The window refuses to open.

5. 昨天他没准时到校。

He failed to get to school on time yesterday.

6. 他们不准小孩入内。

They excluded children (from) getting in.

7. 那座大楼处于无人管理的状态。

That building is in a state of neglect.

8. 干这事我力不胜任。

To do this is beyond my ability.

9. 该做这工作的是我,而不是你。

I, rather than you, should do the work.

10. 事实真相同你想的完全不同。

The truth is quite other than what you think.

11. She was refused admittance by them.

他们不许她进去。

12. An opportunity is not likely to repeat itself.

良机难再。

13. The evidence is conclusive, excluding all possibilities of doubt.

证据确凿,毋庸置疑。

14. Mr. White has refrained from making any official comment on the coup in that country.

怀特先生并没有对该国的政变发表正式评论。

15. That served to strengthen instead of weaken our determination (or: That strengthened, rather than weakened, our determination.)

那件事没有削弱我们的决心,反倒增加了我们的决心。

16. But for the workers’ help, we should not have succeeded in this experiment.

没有工人们的帮助,我们这个实验便不会成功。

17. George Bernard Shaw once said, “All criminals are not murderers.”

治·萧伯纳曾说:罪犯并非全是杀人犯。

(不能误译成所有的罪犯都不是杀人犯。

18. But all men are not born to reign.

非人人生来都是作帝王的。

19. Both children are not clever.

正译:并非两个孩子都聪明。

误译:两个孩子都不聪明。

在翻译中,除了部分否定之外,还有一否定现象要特别注意,这就是实际表示否定意义的双重否定。一般说来,双重否定等于肯定(否定之否定等于肯定:Two noes make a yes.),但作为一种粗俗英语或亚标准英语,一直被以英语为母语的人们,特别是英语国家的不少劳动人民在使用,表示强调否定之义。这种双重否定的语言现象在不少书中,如马克·吐温的The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn一书中使用得很多。遇到这类的句子,一定要认真研究上下文,弄清它到底是肯定还是否定。如果是一种亚标准英语,就不要译成肯定意思。

1. We never thought of nothing wrong.

正译:我们从来没想到有什么错误。

(正规英语为We never thought of anything wrong.

误译:我从来没想到了有错误。

2. They would not eat themselves, and would not let others neither.

在标准英语中,neither应改成 either,所以应译成:

他们自己不吃(东西),也不让别人吃(东西)。

试译下列句子

1. He was extremely sorry for the shortness of time.

他对时间不足感到十分抱歉。

2.He was kept in the dark about the transaction of the company.

他对公司此次的交易一无所知。

3. Before I could say "thank you", the postman had disappeared around the corner. 

我还没来得及说声谢谢,邮递员已经在拐角处不见了。

4. I have read your articles. I expect to meet an old man.

我读过你的文章,没想到你这样年轻。

5. She may be out on weekends.

她周末有可能不在。

6. He dived into the water fully clothed and rescued the children.

他衣服没脱就跳入水中,把孩子们救了上来。 

7. He never gave up in face of difficulties.

困难面前,他勇往直前。

8. One can never be too careful in one’s work.

工作越细心越好。

9. The scientist must approach the familiar just as carefully and cautiously as he does the unfamiliar.

科学家在处理熟知的事物时,必须像处理陌生的事物一样小心谨慎。(形容词) 

10. He was absent from his own country last year.

他去年不在自己的国家。(形容词短语) 

11. He dived into the water fully clothed and rescued the children 

他衣服没脱就跳入水中,把孩子救了上来。(副词) 

12. He was extremely sorry for the shortness of time.

他对时间不足感到十分抱歉。(名词)

13. I do think that it is beyond his power to fulfill the task

我的确认为要完成这项任务是他力所不及的。(介词) 

14. The lecture was interesting but as far as I am concerned, the speaker was speaking over my head.

这讲座很有趣,但对我来说,讲座太深了,听不懂。(介词短语) 

15. The plan as it is leaves much to be desired

目前这样的方案大有不足之处。(动词短语) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 10 Division & Condensation

10.1 Division

If we follow the original sentence structure in translation, we may find it hard to reproduce the original thought. Besides other ways to deal with this case, we may divide such a sentence into two or more parts by picking out those words, phrases or clauses which are "hard nuts to crack" and making them into Chinese word-groups, clauses or sentences, coordinate or subordinate.

In division, we have to determine where to divide, how to divide, what the subject or the predicate of the new clause or sentence should be, and how to rearrange various parts of the original sentence. These may involve such techniques as Conversion, Addition and Inversion.

10.1.1 Picking Out of Words

It is advisable to pick out those words which are hard to reproduce in the origins and expand them into Chinese word-groups, clauses or sentences. There are usually three steps to deal with such words:

(1) Determine which word(s) to pick out;

(2) Apply Conversion or Addition, if necessary, to make the translated version smooth and well-connected;

(3) Rearrange the word order according to the Chinese mode of expression.

Examples:

l. He reminded me of what I should otherwise have forgotten.

他提醒了我,要不然我就把这事给忘了。(《新英汉词典》2000: 925)

Cf. 他提醒我那些不提起或许会忘记的事。(《远东英汉大辞典》1977: 1470)

2. The headlines of the Paris and London newspapers were big, blackand frightened. (The Winds of War)

巴黎和伦敦的报纸用的是大号黑体标题,显得惊慌失措。

Cf. 巴黎和伦敦的报纸的标题是大号、黑体和恐慌的。

3. I had unforgivably in a stealthy manner, peeped at her correspondence. (Rebecca)

我偷偷摸摸地看她的信,这实在是难以宽恕的行为。

Cf. 我难以宽恕地偷偷看她的信。

4. They relentlessly tear at the flowers they see.

他们见花就摘,毫不爱惜。

Cf. 他们无情地摘他们所看到的花。

5. The sailors swarmed into a laughing, cheering ring around the two men. 水兵们欢欢笑笑,蜂拥而至,把这两个人围了起来。

Cf. 水兵们蜂拥成又欢又笑得圆圈,把这两个人围了起来。

6. At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle-ground reply. 如今,人们倾向于采取不偏不倚的态度来回答问题,因为这样安全,不招风险。

7. I shall be glad of your company on the journey.

如果你能陪我一块儿去,我会很高兴。

8. He filled neatly two columns of the single-sheet issue with his article. 小报只有一单张,他的文章却整整占了两栏的篇幅。

9. All this time our poor bewildered families had been kept in secret at Brioni. 整整这段时间,我们可怜的家属,一直秘密地被留在布里俄尼,不知所措。

10. She had seen the dictionary, flying over the pavement of the little garden, fall at length at the feet of the astonished Miss Jemima. (Vanity Fair) 她眼看字典飞过小花园的甬道,最后掉在吉米玛小姐的脚边,吓了她一大跳。

11. The time could have been more profitably spent in making a detailed investigation. (= If the time had been spent in making a detailed investigation, it culd have been more profitable.) 如果当初把时间花在作一番详细的调查上,收获就会更大。

12. Your sister-in-law is a nice pretty woman? (Vanity Fair)

你的嫂子很漂亮,为人也不错,是不是?

13. They showed us a terrifying film about flash-flooding. (N. Rigg)

他们给我们演过一场顷刻暴雨成灾的电影,情景非常可怕。

14. You can believe that I have worked that moment over and over againin a sad attempt to send time back and resolve the event in a less tragic way. (N. Rigg)

真的,我一次又一次地回忆当时的情景,带着忧伤的心情,想把时间倒转回去,以求用一种不那么悲惨的方式来处理这个意外情况。

10.1.2 Picking Out of Phrases

Participle phrases, noun phrases, and prepositional phrases, etc., if hard to reproduce in the original structure, may likewise be picked out and expanded.

Examples:

l. The image of a sudden wall carrying the man and his car away in an instant is still imprinted on my mind. (N. Rigg) 顷刻之间,滚滚的浊水像堵墙一般压了下来,一古脑儿连人带车都给冲走了。这情景,直到现在还印在我的脑海里。

2. Somehow our path took us toward the park, across the footbridge high above the Roolling waters of the Los Angeles River. (N. Rigg) 我们不知不觉朝公园走去。公园就在人行桥那边, 桥下很深的地方,汹涌的洛杉矾河水滚滚流过。

3. He was at this time in his late fifties, a tall, elegant man with good features and thick waving dark hair only sufficiently graying to add to the distinction of his appearance.他这时已是将近六旬的人,高个儿,一表人才,眉目清秀,卷发又多又黑,略带花白,恰好衬出他那堂堂的仪表。

10.1.3 Splitting of Complex Sentences

Take the adjective clause for example. The English adjective clause and the Chinese attribute in the form of a word-groupthere is no such term as "定语从句" in Chinesediffer not only syntactically, but semantically as well. Syntactically speaking, the adjective clause is placed after the noun it modifies with a connective (or omitted), while the Chinese attribute is placed before the noun it modifies with or without a "". Semantically speaking, the Chinese attribute in most cases only modifies or restricts the noun, while the English adjective clause plays a wider range of roles: it may denote restriction or non-restriction, add description or explanation, and express reason, result, purpose, condition, or concession. That is, though it is called an "adjective clause", it may function like an adverbial. Moreover, one clause may govern or modify another, rendering the sentence long and complex. However, such sentences hardly exist in Chinese, so English complex sentences are often split up in translation.

10.1.4 Separate the Adjective Clause from the Main Clause

English adjective clauses may be translated into separate clauses or sentences, or subordinate clauses which function as adverbials denoting reason, result, purpose, condition, concession, etc. Here are some examples to illustrate this point.

1. Translate adjective clause into separate clauses or sentences.

Examples:

1). The draft resolutioncarefully drafted in moderate termswhich, despite its flawswe shall support, is primarily an appeal. 这项决议草案,精心草拟,措词温和,首先是一种呼吁。尽管它有缺点,我们还要支持。

2). Bright sunshine flooded the street where a group of boys in Sunday clothes were playing ball. (A. Maltz: Sunday Morning on Twentieth Street) 大街上阳光灿烂。一群穿着假日服装的孩子正在街上玩球。

3). This was the period when Einstein began the research which resulted in the creation of his famous theory of Relativity. 就在这期间,爱因斯坦开始进行一项研究。通过这项研究,他创立了著名的相对论。

2. Translate adjective clauses into Chinese subordinate [adverbial] clauses.

Examples

l). However we should not give much credence to this tale, which is more likely spread to make fun of the supposedly stingy nature of the Scots. (cause) 我们可不要轻信这样的传说,因为这种传说之所以流传,大多是用来嘲笑苏格兰人的所谓吝啬的性格。

2). Matter has certain features or properties that enable us to recognize it easily. (result) 物质具有一定的特征或特性,所以我们能够很容易地识别它。

3). There is a minimum size for the reactor at which the chain reaction will just work. (condition) 要使连锁反应刚好能够维持下去,反应堆就要有一个最起码的尺寸。

4). A gas occupies all of any container in which it is placed. (concession) 气体不管装在什么容器里,都会把容器填满。

5). The enemy decided to send an envoy, who was to sue for peace. (Purpose) 敌人决定派遣一个使者,(以便)前来求和。

6). He was trying to sell a snake-shaped ring which was found to be Walenn’s. (Galsworthy: The First and the Last) (main clause, time) 他正在兜售一只蛇形戒指的时候,有人发现这原来是韦伦的东西。

3. Translate adjective clauses into Chinese word-groups.

Examples

1). The aggressor is the one who has doomed one entire people to live on international charity, in the midst of concentration camps where sickness, squalor and desolation are rife. (就是那个)侵略者,把整整一个民族害得只能靠国际救济,在难民营里过活,疾病蔓延,污秽不堪,一片凄凉。

2). They would have had to live the rest of their lives under the stigma that they had recklessly precipitated an action which wrecked the Summit Conference and conceivably could have launched a nuclear war.

他们恐怕免不了在有生之年要蒙受不洁之名,人们会说他们贸然采取行动,使最高级会议遭到搁浅,而且,可以设想,还可能挑起一场核战争。

10.1.5 Separate Other Clauses from the Main Clause

Inversion often requires division. We may separate other clauses from the main clause and rearrange the word order, rendering the main clause or the subordinate clause into Chinese independent element (独立成分) or extra-position element (外位成分).

Example:

l. It is a familiar fact that nothing in nature will either start or stop moving of itself. 自然界任何物体的运动都不会自行开始或自行停止,这是人所共知的事实。

2. Mr. Secretary, do you share the view that too many people are talking too much about Iraq? 国务卿先生,现在谈伊拉克问题的人太多了,谈伊拉克问题的话也说得太多了,你也有同感吗?

10.1.6 Splitting of the Whole Sentence (拆译整个句子)

Division is often needed to translate colloquial expressions, complex and long sentences. It should be noted that shorter expressions or sentences are generally preferred in Chinese.

Example: From Bernard Shaw: Pygmalion, 1913, 杨宪益译:《卖花女》)

l. Well, what if I did? I’ve as good a right to take a taxi as anyone else. 那又怎么样呢?的士别人能坐,咱也能坐。

2. How can you be such a foolish ignorant girl as to think you could afford to pay Mr. Higgins? 你这姑娘怎么那么糊涂不懂事?你能出得起钱请息金斯先生吗?

3. Well, you wouldn’t have the fact to ask me the same for teaching me my own language as you would for French.你总没那么厚脸皮要咱一样多的钱吧?这是教本国的话,又不是教法文。

10.1.7 Conclusion

The necessity of division is largely due to the different features in sentence structure: hypotaxis (形合法) or “architectural style”(楼房建筑法)of English and parataxis(意合法)or “chronical style”(流水记事法)of Chinese.

English modifiers, with longer phrases and adjective clauses in particular, should  often picked out and separated from other parts of the sentence in translationso  as to make the Chinese version smooth and idiomatic. The reason why longer English  adjective clauses are arranged in translation lies in the fact that Chinese has no  English-like “adjective clauses”, the Chinese attribute should be placed before the  noun and is thereby considerably limited in length because

汉语的定语只能放在前边,就不便很长。定语长了,听的人 (或读的人) 老在惦着那个被修饰的名词,不知道你说的是什么人或什么东西,就要着急,也容易疲劳,搞得不好还会 "迷路"。英语的定语从句放在后头,说的是什么人或什么东西已经在前边交代了,听的人就不着急了,因此英语里的定语从句可以拉得很长。 (吕叔湘 1980: 156)

Hypotactic vs. Paratactic (形合与意合)

Hypotaxis (形合法) is the dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses with connectives, for example, I shall despair if you don’t come. English sentence building is featured by hypotaxis.

Parataxis(意合法)is the arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives Showing the relation between them, for example, The rain fell; the river flooded; the  house washed away. Chinese sentence building is featured by parataxis.

To clarify the relations between words, phrases or clauses, English more often resorts to overt cohesion(显性接应), frequently using various cohesive ties such as relatives (relative or conjunctive pronouns and adverbs, e.g. who, whom, whose, that, which, what, when, where, why, how), connectives (coordinate or subordinate  conjunctionse.g. and, or, but, yet, so, however, as well as(n)either(n)or…,when, while, as, since, until, sothat, unless, lest), prepositions, and some others.

·When I try to understand what it is that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expect, it seems to me that there are two causes, of which one goes much deeper than the other. 为什么如此众多的美国人不能如想象中那样幸福呢?我认为原因有二,而两者之间又有深浅之分。

· Change of information, if any, concerning the contents of this section will be found in the appendix at the end of this book. 本节内容如有更改,均见本书末附录。

By contrast, Chinese more frequently relies on covert coherence (隐性连贯) and  contextfocusing on temporal or logical sequences. Instead of using various cohesive ties such as relatives, connectives and prepositions as in English, Chinese more  often resorts to word order, contracted sentences (紧缩句), four-character expressions(四字格), and some grammatical or rhetorical devices such  as repetition, antithesis, and parallelism. Compare English with Chinese:

1. ()不犯我 ,我()不犯人。(语序)

We will not attack unless we are attacked·

2. (如果)他不来,我()不去。(对照)

If he won’t come here, I’ll not go there.

3. 聪明一世,糊涂一时。(对偶)

Smart as a rulebut this time a foo1.

4. 不到黄河心不死。 (紧缩句)

Until all is over, ambition never dies.

5. 不进则退。 (四字格)

He who does not advance falls backward. / Move forward, or you’ll fall behind.

王力 (1984:141) points out "西洋语的结构好像连环,虽则环与环都联络起来,毕竟有联络的痕迹;中国语的结构好像无缝天衣,只是一块一块的硬凑,凑起来还不让它有痕迹。西洋语法是硬的,没有弹性的;中国语法是软的,富于弹性的。惟其是硬的,所以西洋语法有许多呆板的要求,如每一个clause里必须有一个主语;惟其是软的,所以中国语法只以达意为主,如初系的目的位可兼次系的主语,又如相关的两件事可以硬凑在一起,不用任何的connective word”。高名凯(1986:366)also says"汉人平常说话不喜欢用太多没有基本意义的虚词,只是把事情和意思排列起来,让人去了解这两个事情或两个意思之间所生的关系如何。不过这并不是说汉人说话不合逻辑,因为不加虚词,我们也知道这句话的意思”。

10.2 Condensation

     The opposite of division is condensation, a teachnique employed to achieve conciseness and contractedness in translation. On the other hand, we may pick out a word or a phrase from a simple sentence and make it into a word-group, a clause or a sentence, or we may split a complex sentence into two or more clauses or sentences; on the other hand, we may condense a phrase into a word, a clause into a word-group, a complex or compound sentence into a simple sentence, or two or more simple sentences into one simple sentence, to make our translation concise or contracted.

     Condensation in English-Chinese translation further testifies to the difference between hypotaxis of English and parataxis of Chinese.

10.2.1 Condensation of Phrases and Clauses

1. In the course of the same year, war broke out in that area. 同年,该地区爆发了战争。

2. No one has told them about the British custom of lining up for a bus so that the first person who arrives at a bus stop is the first person to get on the bus. 谁也没有跟他们说过,英国人有排队候车、先到后上的习惯。

3. From that moment on, Kissinger told us, their problem was to gear the negotiation in such a way that it would support their military objectives.基辛格对我们说,从那以后,他们的问题一直是设法使谈判配合他们的军事目的。

4. At the earliest opportunity he ordered the cavalry to ride out and clear the level ground in the occupation of the enemy.

5. We must buring forward a new design at the earliest possible date.

6. Nature is bountiful in her variety, yet economical in the way she makes things.

7. If this continues the land will soon look like a desert.

10.2.2 Condensation of Complex Sentences into Simple Sentences

1. When we praise the Chinesee leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite. 我们对中国领导人和中国人民的赞扬绝不是出于虚假的礼貌。

2. There is no time when the circulation of water does not take place. 水循环无时不在进行。

3. Mercury expands as it gets hotter and contracts as it cools. 水银会热胀冷缩。

4. The acting of plays was something to which the educational theory of the Renaissance attached high importance. (= The acting of plays was granted high importance in the educational theory of the Renaissance.) 演戏这件事很受文艺复兴时期教育理论的推崇。

5. It is this emphasis which it lays upon the unity of a work of art that the classical conception seems principally opposed to the romantic. (= The principal difference between the classical conception of a work of art and the romantic one seems to lie in whether emphasis is laid upon its unity.) 古典派文艺思想和浪漫派文艺思想主要的不同似乎就在于是否强调艺术作品的统一性。

6. To save embarrassment to people still living I have given to the persons who play a part in this story names of my own contriving, and I have in other ways taken pains to make sure that no one should recognize them. 故事中角色的姓氏全都由我自己想出,并且务必写得使人认不出是谁,免得那些活在世上的人看了感到不安。

11.2.3 Condensation of Compound Sentences into Simple Sentences

1. In 1844 Engels met Marx, and they became friends. 1844年恩格斯与马克思相遇并成了朋友。

2. It was midnight, and there was not a single soul on the street. 半夜,街上空无一人。

3. The time was 10:00 p.m., and traffic on the street was light. 晚上十点钟,街上来往的车辆稀少了。

4. From Florence the river Arno runs down to Pisa, and then it reaches the sea. 阿诺河从弗罗伦萨流经比萨入海。

10.2.4 Condensation of Two or More Simple Sentences into One Simple Sentence

1. He was very clean. His mind was open. 他为人正派而坦率。

2. Brown had a long discussion with him. He got nowhere. 布朗同他进行了长时间的讨论,但毫无结果。

3. Constructive criticism should not break friendship. It should breed respect. 建设性的批评不应损害友谊而应增进尊重。

4. It was early morning on August 5, 1990. The sea was calm. 199085日清晨,海上风平浪静。

     Many proverbs or maxims are condensed or contracted when translated into Chinese.

1. Who knows most says least. 博学者寡言。

2. He who would gather roses must not fear thorns. 有心采玫瑰就别怕刺。

3. One “Take this” is better than two “I’ll give you”. (Spanish proverb) 十赊不如一现。

4. The best fish smell when they are three days old. 久住招人嫌。

5. Sow the wind and reap the whirlwind. 吹的是风,得到的是旋风。/ 做坏事必遭加倍报应。

6. He who grasps too much holds nothing fast. 贪多必失。/样样都要,样样失掉。

7. Make hay while the sun shines. 晒草要趁阳光好,行事要趁机会好。/ 抓紧时机。

8. You made your bed, so now you must lie on it. 自作自受。/ 自食其果。

9. Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves. 积少成多。/ 集腋成裘。

10. Tell me who your friends are and I’ll tell you who you are. 从其交友知其为人。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 11 Translation of the Passive Voice

The wide use of passive voice is considered to be one of the outstanding features of the English language, especially in its scientific works. And the following is a typical example:

As oil is found deep in the ground its presence cannot be determined by a study of the surface. Consequently, a geological survey of the underground rock structure must be carried out. If it is thought that the rocks in a certain area contain oil, a “drilling rig” is assembled. The most obvious part of a drilling rig is called “a derrick”. It is used to lift sections of pipe, which are lowered into the hole made by the drill. As the hole is being drilled, a steel pipe is pushed down to prevent the sides from falling in. If oil is struck a cover is firmly fixed to the top of the pipe and the oil is allowed to escape through a series of valves.

由于石油深埋地下,靠研究地面,不能确定石油的有无。因此对地下岩层结构必须进行地质探测。如果认为某地区的岩层含石油,则在该处安装钻机。钻机中最显眼的部件叫井架。井架用来吊升分节油管,把油管放入钻头打出的孔中。当孔钻成时,放入钢管防止孔壁坍塌。如发现石油,则在油管顶部加盖,使石油通过一系列阀门流出。

In this short section of 14 predicate verbs, the passive accounts for 13.

Generally speaking, English passive voice is preferable in the following cases:

1. When the active subject is unknown or cannot be readily stated

e.g. Rome was not built in a day.

2. When the actor (or doer of the action) is known but need not be mentioned

e.g. Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

3. When the actor is emphasized for some special purpose

e.g. The three machines can be controlled by a single operator.

4.When the passive structure is used as a stylistic device to avoid the incoherence of structure shifting

e.g. John was a lawyer’s son and was destined to the bar.

The passive voice in Chinese is less commonly used in comparison with the English on account of the flexible syntax of the Chinese language. Therefore, in dealing with E-C translation, we should avoid sticking to the original pattern and try to convert the passive voice into various Chinese sentence patterns.

The following are usual methods of translating English sentences in the passive voice.

11.1 Passive Voice Converted into Active Voice

11.1.1 The Original Subject Unchanged

1. The gas can be liquefied and bottled or piped into homes.

石油气可液化装瓶,或用管道输送到用户家里。

2. It is reported that another man-made earth satellite has been put into orbit.

据报道,另一颗人造地球卫星已送入轨道。

3. Whenever two objects are rubbed together, electrons are transferred from one object to the other.

当两个物体在一起磨擦时,电子便从一个物体进入到另一个物体。

4. Preventable evils – starvation, disease, slavery and war – now continue solely because we are tied to out-dated political and economic systems.

本来可以预防的祸害——饥饿,疾病,奴役和战争——现在之所以仍在为害,仅仅是因为我们陷入了过时的政治制度和经济制度的罗网之中。

11.1.2 Use the Chinese pattern “……是……的”or Supply “加以”、“予以”while Retaining the Original Subject.

1. The rate of motion or the speed of an object is given in units of length and time.

物体运动的速率是用长度和时间单位来表示的。

2. This question will be discussed in the next chapter.

这个问题将在下一章加以讨论。

3. It must be dealt with at the appropriate time.

这必须在适当的时候予以处理。

11.1.3 Changing Wording while Retaining the Original Subject

1. They are paid for this.

他们拿钱就是干这个的。

2. He was attentive to the signs of public opinion and disposed to be guided by them when right.

他十分注意舆论界的动向,并且愿意按照舆论界正确的意见办事。

3. The culture of antiquity was rediscovered.

古代文化重见天日。

4. He prepared to face about and march back to Princeton, to be governed by circumstances and the movements of General Lee.

他准备调转头来,折回普林斯顿,在那里再根据情况和李将军的动向相机行事。

5. Hitherto he had been held in check by superior considerations and by the controlling interference of Congress.

在这以前,由于更大的利害关系的考虑,也由于国会的制约,他始终不敢轻举妄动。

6. Debtors of English merchants, they will be deprived of their liberty if they take the smallest step.

他们都是英国商人的债务人。他们只要采取丝毫步骤,都会失去他们的自由。

7. He has been pursued day by day, and year by year, by a most phenomenal and astonishing luckiness.

一天又一天,一年又一年,他始终吉星高照,令人惊异不已。

8. Before reaching his teens, Christopher was firmly installed an official second violinist in the court orchestra.

克里斯托弗不到十岁,就稳稳当当地正式当上了宫廷乐队的第二把提琴手。

11.1.4 Convert the Verbs in Passive Form into Chinese Nouns

1. The hall is air-conditioned and beautifully lighted.

大厅里有空调设备,照明设计也非常美观。

2. The electric current is defined as a stream of electrons flowing through a conductor.

电流的定义是流经一个导体的电子流。

11.1.5 Changing Original Object into Subject

1. It is well known that the compass was invented in China more than two thousands years ago.

众所周知,中国在两千多年前就发明了指南针。

2. Even when the pressure stays the same, great changes in air density are caused by changes in temperature.

既是压力不变,气温的变化也能引起空气密度的巨大变化。

3. This cooperation – this association – will be strengthened by our talks this week in Beijing – the first such talks ever between Prime Ministers of China and Australia.

本星期我们在北京的会谈——中澳两国总理首次这样的会谈——将会加强这种合作与联系。

4. Air that is cooled suddenly shrinks as some of the moisture is squeezed out, and clouds are formed.

突然冷却的空气,由于挤出了部分水分,体积收缩,就变成了云。

11.1.6 Adding a Proper Subject to Make the Chinese Version Smooth

     According to G. Leech and J. Svartvik (1974:258), the by-phrase containing the agent of a passive clause is only required in specific cases (in fact, about four out of five English passive clauses have no agent). The passive is especially associated with impersonal style (e.g. in scientific and official writing), where the question of who is the agent (i.e. who performs the action described by the verb) is unimportant and often irrelevant. O. Jespersen and R. Quirk hold the similar view about the agent in the passive. In Chinese, however, as 王力(1984:129) pointed out, “中国正常的被动式是必须把主事者说出来的。吕叔湘and 朱德熙(1979:87) also hold that “在形式上,字底下一般要有宾语,表示主动者”, though there is an increasing tendency toward omitting the agent in the Chinese passive -pattern.

     In translation, the unknown or unimportant agent of an English passive may be supplied by using the indefinite subject like “有人”、“人们”、“大家”or the definite subject like “我们”、“文本”according to the context, thereby making the translated sentence active in form.

1. Voices were heard calling for help.

有人听见呼救的声音。

2. It is now understood that atoms can be further divided into smaller particles.

现在人们懂得,原子还可以进一步分成更小的粒子。

3. Common ferrous heat treating processes with the case hardening left out are briefly discussed.

本文扼要的讨论了一般黑色金属的热处理工艺,其中的表层硬化法则删略未论。

4. He went on to say that a living protein would probably be prepared chemically in another hundred years to come when the composition of protein became known.

他接着说,再过一百年,当人们知道了蛋白质的成分之后,就有可能用化学的方法制造有生命的蛋白质。

5. It was startled when the menu was brought, for the prices were a great deal higher than I had expected.

侍者送来了菜单,一看价钱,比我预想的高得多,我不禁吓了一跳。

6. Not a voice, or hand, or even an eye was raised.

没有人敢吭声,没有人敢举手,甚至没有人敢抬一下眼皮。

7. When atomic weapons were used for the first time Winston Churchill described the power of the atom as “a revelation long mercifully withheld from man”.

在第一次使用原子武器的时候,温斯顿·丘吉尔把原子的威力说成是“仁慈的上帝长期不让人类知道的秘密。”

11.1.7 The Passive voice Converted into a Sentence without a Subject

In translating, the Chinese “executive form” with causative “把”,“将”or“使”may be used.

1. The mechanical energy can be changed back into electrical energy by a generator.

利用发电机,可以把/将机械能再转变成电能。

2. The resistance can be determined provided that the voltage and current are known.

只要知道电压和电流,就能确定电阻。

3. Air resistance must be given careful consideration when the aircraft is to be manufactured.

要制造飞机,就必须仔细考虑空气阻力问题。

11.2 The Passive Structure remaining Unchanged

1. Robert was dismissed by the boss of the factory.

罗伯特已被工厂的老板开除了。

2. This factory was seriously damaged during the earthquake.

这家工厂在地震中遭到严重破坏。

11.3 Translation of the Idiomatic Passive

     In translating some idiomatic English passive like the following, we usually use the character “据”, or supply indefinite subjects like “有人”,“人们”or“大家”, or use no-subject or subject-omitted expression to turn the passive into an active.

1. I was told that …我听说……

2. It is said that…据说……

3. It must be admitted that…必须承认……

4. It is well-known that…众所周知……

5. It will be seen from this that…由此可见……

6. It has been objected that…有人反对说……

7. It is sometimes asked that…人们有时会问……

8. It is established that…可以认定……

9. It is hypothesized that…假设……

10. It is recommended that… 有人推荐……

11.4 The Passive Voice replaced by Other Structures

In some cases, however, the passive voice in English cannot be rendered into good Chinese by any of the above means. Therefore, it is up to the translator to adjust or remold the whole structure, trying to find a readable and smooth Chinese version.

1. The village is populated by about 13000 farmers.

这个村子里住着大约13,000农民。

2. Most trees are denuded of leaves in winter.

大多数树木冬天要落叶。

3. The news was pass on by word of mouth.

众口相传,消息不胫而走。

4. He has been wedded to translation.

他与翻译结下不解之缘。

5. She and her husband have been asked out for the banquet.

她和丈夫应邀赴宴去了。

6. Nowadays people usually prefer driving to being driven.

现在人们喜欢自己开车,而不喜欢坐别人开的车。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 12 Translation of the English Noun Clause

The English noun clause falls into four kinds: the subject clause, the object clause, the predicative clause and the appositive caluse, which function as a noun in a complex sentence. The crux of translating the English noun class lies in a proper arrangement of its order.

12.1 Translation of the Subject Clause

12.1.1 “It+被动语态+that”句型

这种句型通常要译成汉语里的主动句,并增译出大家”“我们” “有人” “人们等泛指性的主语。该译法的特点保留了原文句子结构的前后顺序,即:先主句,后从句。有时也可译为……”的句型。如:

1. It is reported that the Summit Meeting will be held in December.

据报道,这个峰会将在12月举行。

2. It could be argued that the radio performs this service just as well; but on television everything is much more living, much more real.

可能有人会提出,无线电广播同样能够做到这一点;但是在电视屏幕上,每个节目都显得更加生动,更加真实。

3. It is well known that alloy is a metal product containing two or more elements.

众所周知(大家都知道),合金是一种含有两种或两种以上元素的金属产品。

4. It is quite possible that someday John will come to see you again.

总有一天约翰会来找你的,这是很有可能的哦!

5. It is frequently the case that his car breaks down on the highway.

他的车在路上抛锚,这是常有的事儿。

6. It is a matter of common experience that bodies are lighter in water than they are in air.

物体在水中比在空气中轻,这是一种(大家共有的)常识。

B. “It +谓语(表语)+that”句型

这样的主语从句句型可处理为: (1) 先把主句的谓语或表语部分译成独立语,然后顺译出从句;(2) 颠倒原文句子结构,先译出从句,再译出主句。如:

7. It is strange that she has failed to see his advantages.

真奇怪,她竟然没有看出他的优点。

8. It goes without saying that plants cannot grow without sunshine.

毋庸置疑,没有阳光,植物就不能生长。

9. It is quite obvious that the girl still loves you deeply.

很明显,这个女孩依然深爱着你。

10.It follows that the Chinese comrades consider Korea’s cause as their own.

由此得出,中国同志把朝鲜的事情看成自己的事情。

比较上述各句,联系英汉民族思维差异:英语民族重直线思维,要点先给出,其他信息再一一增补;汉语民族重曲线思维,先侧面,外围,后点出信息的重点。因而,英语(前重心)是头短尾长,汉语是(后重心),头大尾小。

C. what, whatever, whoever, when, whether等引导出的主语从句通常可按正常语序译出。如:

11. What is hard is to do good all one’s life and never do anything bad.

难得的是一辈子做好事而不做坏事。

12. What the students find most difficult in English is its idiomatic usage.

学生感到,英语最困难的地方是它的习惯用法

13. Whatever was said here must be kept secret.

这里说的每句话都应当保密。

14. Who will monitor the class is not decided yet.

谁当班长还没决定。

15. When her parents will come hasn’t been under consideration.

她的父母什么时候到来还没有(纳入)考虑。

12.2 Translation of Object Clause

12.2.1普通句型

以从属连词、连接代词或介词引起的宾语从句汉译时,词序一般不变。如:

16. I have not made up my mind as to what elective course I am to take next term.

我还有决定下学期上哪些选修课。

17. This shows that something unexpected may have turned up.

这表明可能出现了意外情况。

18. Lei Feng always thought how he could do more for  people.

雷锋总是想到怎样为人民做更多的事。

19. She was never satisfied with what she had achieved.

她从不满足于她取得的成就。

20. Zhang San replied that he was very sorry.

张三回答说,他感到很遗憾。

it 作形势宾语的句子,汉译时,宾语从句可按原文译出,但it 可省译。

21. I leave it to your own judgment whether you should do it.

我让你自己判断,这件事该不该做。

22. I made it clear to the students that they must hand in their assignments before 11 a.m.

我给学生讲明,他们必须在上午11点前交作业。

23. I think it quite true that he ventured out to Shangri-la.

他又冒险去香格里拉了,我觉得这件事千真万确。

英语中有时为了修辞强调, 把宾语从句置于主句前,汉译时也可遵从该修辞效果,顺序译出。如:

24. Whether they like it or not, I don’t care.

他们喜不喜欢,我可不管。

25. What they were asked to do in 10 days, they finished in two.

让他们十天做的事,他们两天就做完了。 

12.3 Translation of the Appositive Clause

单词、短语作同位语的译法

25. According to Synder, my cousin, Oswald mentioned this matter.

根据我表兄斯奈德的叙述,奥斯瓦得提到过这件事。(提前)

26. We two like to go there.

我们两个都想去。

作适当扩充或加破折号、冒号

27. Her son, my employer’s nephew, was himself an assistant in the shop.

她的儿子,也就是我老板的侄子,也在店里当伙计。

28. But in there hours we reached our destination, A prison.

但三小时之后我们就到了目的地——A监狱。

试译下列句子

1. That theory must go hand in hand with practice is a principle we should always keep in mind.

理论联系实际一直是我们的准则(原则)。

2.  It is a common knowledge that weight is a pull exerted on an object by the earth.

重量是地球作用在物体上的引力,这是大家都知道的。

3.  Have you decided whom you are to nominate as your candidate?

你是否已决定提名谁当候选人了?

4.That is where you are wrong.

这正是你错的地方。

5. We had to face the fact that our prospects were less than good.

 我们不得不正视这样的事实:我们的前景并不妙。

6. But the effect of her being on those around her was incalculably diffusive: for the growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistorical acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.

 --Eliot, Middlemarch

但是她对周围人的影响,依然不绝如缕,未可等闲视之,因为世上善的增长,一部分也有赖于那些微不足道的行为,而你我的遭遇之所以不致如此悲惨,一半也得力于那些不求闻达、忠实地度过一生,然后安息在无人凭吊的坟墓中的人们。

--项星耀译 人民文学出版社 1987

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 13 Translation of English Attributive Clauses

Attributive clauses are widely used in English. In many cases, sentences are made very long because of attributive clauses. Hence it is important to have a correct comprehension and an accurate translation of attribute clauses. Different attributive clauses may express different meaning such as purpose, concession, result and so on. An attributive clause usually follows the word it modifies. This is different from Chinese. In Chinese there is no post-position attributive and there can’t be too many modifiers preceding the modified word. All this causes changes in translating some sentences which contain attributive clauses.

13.1 Translating into Prepositive Attribute

This is the most common practice of translating English attributive clause that it not too long. In this case, an English restrictive attributive clause is translated into prepositive attribute. By doing so, we have actually converted an English complex sentence into a Chinese simple sentence.

1. I don’t like people who lose their temper easily.

我不喜欢爱发脾气的人.

2. He is wisest who is honest. 

诚实的人最聪明。

3. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them. 

对参与此次袭击的恐怖分子和那些庇护他们的人, 我们都将严惩不贷。

4. Space and oceans are the new world which scientists are trying to explore.

太空和海洋是科学家们努力探索的新领域。

5. His laughter, which was infectious, broke the silence.

他那富有感染力的笑声打破了沉寂。

6. To be sure, a great rebuilding project would give jobs to many of those people who need them.

诚然,一个宏伟的重建计划也许能为许多需要工作的人提供就业机会。

7. In recent years, however, people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas where there is a concentration of problems.

可是,近几年来人们开始意识到城市也是问题成堆的地方。

当然,有些起附加说明作用的非限制性定语从句,对先行词也有不同程度的修饰限制作用,有时也可以译为前置定语。

8. The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor.

那个整天躲在云层里的太阳,现在又光芒四射地露面了。

9. He liked his sister, who was warm and pleasant, but he did not like his brother, who was aloof and arrogant.

他喜欢热情愉快的妹妹,而不喜欢冷漠高傲的哥哥。

13.2 Translating into Postpositive Attribute

Sometimes, an English sentence with a restrictive attributive clause is too long or too complicated for the translator to take as a single sentence. In this case, we may divide it into two or several parts, placing the attributive clause after the principal clause to conform to the Chinese usage, repeating the antecedent being modified.

1. Mr. Smith, who came to see me yesterday, is a relative of my wife’s.

史密斯先生昨天来看过我,他是我妻子的一个亲戚.

昨天来看我的史密斯先生是我妻子的一人亲戚。

2. She was awarded a gold medal, which the whole family considered a great honor.

她被授予一枚金质奖章,全家人都认为这是极大的光荣.

3. The eagle catches the snake that gobbles the toad that swallows the insect that nibble at green leaves. 

老鹰抓蛇,蛇吞蛤蟆,蛤蟆吃虫子,虫子啃绿叶。

4. This volume is prepared as examples for writing compositions which, as it were, has been taken as a difficult task.

本书旨在为写作提供范例,可以说写作是一个难题。

5. Matter is composed of molecules that are composed of atoms.

物质是由分子组成的,而分子又是由原子组成的。

6. But listen, I met a man, who said you could solve this problem.

听着,我遇见一个人,这个人说你是有权解决这个问题的。

7. Day light comes from the sun, which is a mass of hot, glowing gas.

日光来自太阳,太阳是一团炽热、发光的气体。

非限制性定语从句与先行词的关系不十分密切,只是对先行词加以说明,描述或解释,或对整个句子所陈述的事实或现象加以总结、补充说明,其前都有逗号分开。在汉译时一般译为后置并列分句。如:

8. He blamed me for everything, which I thought very unfair.

他把一切错误都归罪于我,我认为这很不公平。

9. These books, which are only a small part of my collection, I picked up in American.

这些书是我在美国买的,它们在我的藏书中只占一小部分。

10. They seem to enjoy those rewards which they had purchased by a course of unmerited fatigue, and by victories which almost exceeded belief.

他们对那些酬劳看来是很得意的,那些酬劳是他们历经千辛万苦,通过取得令人难以置信的胜利得来的。

11. I told the story to John, who (=and he) told it to his brother.

我把这件事告诉了约翰,约翰又告诉了他的弟弟。

这种采取后置的办法来处理非限制性定语从句,一般也使用指示代词来重复英语关系代词所代表的含义。

13.3 Mixture

By mixture here we mean combining the principal clause and the attributive clause into a single Chinese sentence without any distincition. This method is usually adopted in translation English “there be …” structure.

1. There is a man downstairs who wants to see you.

楼下有人要见你。

(原句中的主句部分there is a man翻译成有人,然后将定语从句译成句子的谓语部分。)

2. In our factory, there are many people who are much interested in the new invention.

在我们工厂里,许多人对这项新发明很感兴趣。

(原句中的主句部分there are many people翻译成许多人,作译文的主语,然后将定语从句译成句子的谓语部分。)

3. We used a plane of which almost every part carried some indication of national identity.

我们驾驶的飞机几乎每一个部件都有一些国籍标志。

(原句的主句较简单,整句句子的重点是在定语从句中,因此,翻译时将主句译成主语,而将定语从句译成句子的谓语部分。)

4. She had a balance at her banker’s which would have made her beloved anywhere.

她在银行里的存款足以使她到处受到欢迎。

(原句的主句较简单,整句句子的重点是在定语从句中,因此,翻译时将主句译成主语,而将定语从句译成句子的谓语部分。)

5. There are many people who want to select this major.

许多人要选这个专业

6. You are the only person who could do it.

只有你才能做这件事。

7. He has a son of twenty who is now at the college.

他有个二十岁的儿子现在正上大学

8. This was the first time I had serious trouble with my leader.

这是我第一次和领导发生严重纠葛。

13.4 Translating into Adverbial Clause

Some attributive clauses (both restrictive and non-restrictive) function as the adverbial in the complex sentence, having a very close logic relationship with the principal clause and indicating the cause, result, purpose, time, condition, concession, etc.

13.4.1 Translating into Adverbial Clause of Time

1. A driver who is driving the bus mustn’t talk with others or be absent-minded.

司机在开车时,不许和人谈话,也不能走神。

13.4.2 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Cause

1. He showed no further wish for conversation with Mrs. Smith, who was now more than usually insolent and disagreeable.

他似乎不愿再和史密斯太太讲话,因为她现在异常无礼,令人厌烦。

13.4.3 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Condition

1. Men become desperate for work, any work, which will help them to keep alive their families.

人们极其迫切地要求工作,不管什么工作,只要它能维持一家人的生活就行。

13.4.4 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Concession

1. He insisted on buying another house, which he had no use for need.

尽管他并没有这样的需要,他坚持要再买一幢房子。

13.4.5 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Purpose

1. He wishes to write an article that will attract the public attention to the matter.

为了引起公众对这一事件的注意,他想写一篇文章。

2. He is collecting authentic material that proves his argument.

为了证明他的论点,他正在收集确凿的材料以。

13.4.6 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Result

1. They tried to stamp out the revolt, which spread all the more furiously throughout the country.

他们企图镇压反抗,结果反抗愈来愈烈,遍及全国。

13.4.7 Translating into Adverbial Clauses of Adversative

1. She was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.

她对孩子们很有耐心,而她丈夫却很少这样

2. John, whose wife is ill, cannot come to the party.

约翰不能来参加聚会,因为他妻子病了.

3. He insisted on buying another coat, which he had no use for.

他坚持要再买一件上衣,虽然他用不着.

4. Norway is, quite naturally, paying great attention to developments in Europe and in the Atlantic community, which are so instrumental to the maintenance of peace and security in our part of the world.

挪威自然十分关注欧洲和大西洋国家的发展,因为这些发展大大有助于维护世界上我们这一地区的和平和安全.

5. The arms drive, which brings huge profits to the monopolists, weighs heavily on the working people and seriously worsens the economy of the country. 

军备竞赛一方面给垄断资本家带来巨额利润,一方面却把沉重的负担加在劳动人民头上,使国家的经济状况恶化。 

另外,要特别注意由butthan引导的定语从句的翻译.but作为关系代词也可以引导定语从句,同具有否定意义的主句连用,其先行词可以是人,也可以是物.but在意义上等于"that...not", "who...not", "which...not".在带有比较级的句子中,than可以作代词,兼有连词和代词的性质.但也有人认为这种用法的than是连词,后省略了主语what.例如:

6. There are few of them but (who don’t) admire your achievement.

他们几乎每个人都敬佩你的成就.

7. The house was more luxuriously decorated than suited his taste.

那房子装饰得太豪华,不合他的审美趣味

8. The computer, which seems to play the role of a human brain, is often called an electronic brain.

由于计算机起着类似人脑的作用,所以常常被称作电脑。(译成原因状从)

9. Rose took Chinese medicine which relieved her symptoms.

罗斯服了中药,结果缓解了症状。(译成结果状从)

10. There is no bad habit that may not be cured by a strong willpower.

只要有坚强的意志,就没有什么坏习惯改不掉。(译成条件状从)

11. The newswoman wishes to write an article that will attract public attention to shipwreck.

这位女记者想写篇文章,以便能够引起公众对那起沉船事件的注意。(译成目的状语从句)

13.5 Restructuring

翻译定语从句也可以忽略其语法形式,只关注信息,翻译时依据时间逻辑或其他逻辑来调整语序,例如先发生的先说,后发生的后说。如:

1. The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor. 

太阳整天都躲在云层里,现在露面了,光芒四射。

比较:那个整天躲在云层里的太阳,现在又光芒四射地露面了

2. It was an old woman, tall and shapely still, though withered by time, on whom his eyes fell when he stopped and turned. 

他停下脚步,转过身来,定睛一看,是位年迈的妇女。她高高的个儿,虽然饱经风霜,却风韵犹存。

3. They remarked now he took a different seat from that which he usually occupied when he chose to attend divine worship. 

他往常做礼拜时总坐在固定的座位上,可是那天他们发现他不坐老位置了。

试译下列句子

1. He who has never tasted what is bitter does not know what is sweet.

没有吃过苦的人不知道什么是甜。

2. As she turned the corner a new idea occurred to her, which made her stop dead. 

走到拐弯处,她突然想到了一个新主意,立刻停了下来。

3. He did not remember his father who died when he was three years old.

他不记得他父亲了, 因为他父亲死时他才三岁。

4. A civilization that encourages the motive of self-interested calculation to rule every sphere of social life is on a sure path to moral bankruptcy. 

如果一种文明鼓励自私自利,任其在社会生活的各个方面肆虐,那么,这种文明注定会道德沦丧。

 

Lecture 14 Translation of Long Sentences

Translation of long English sentences involves not only a mixed application of various techniques but also a careful analysis of their grammatical structures and logical sequences. That is to say, on one hand, to achieve accurate comprehension a translator should take pains to decode the logical sequence of a long sentence in addition to its grammatical relation, on the other, to achieve appropriate reproduction a translator should make no less efforts to rearrange various parts according to the Chinese way of thinking than to applay translation techniques, such as Diction, Conversion, Omission, Repetition, Inversion, Negation, Division, and Condensation.

14.1 Features of Long English Sentences

English speakers build up long sentences in an “architectural style”. They pay more attentiontoconstruct “spatial structure”, often regardless of temporal sequences. It seems to us Chinese that they build basic structures in five patterns, namely, S+V, S+V+P, S+V+P, S+V+o+O, and S+V+O+C as mainstays, with words, phrases, or clauses as members of sentences, then join, directly or indirectly, various kinds of nexuses composed of word, phrases, or clauses as modifiers, to the mainstays of the basic structures. Here, among other things, English inflection and function words play important roles in connecting various parts grammatically and in showing their relations logically. This is why we often stress that various parts in English sentences are generally arranged in hypotaxis.

The English language is characterized by its frequent use of some hereditary inflections and a great variety of connectives, such as propositions, prepositional phrases, conjunctions, relative pronouns, relative adverbs, which are enriched by the verbals (participles, gerunds, and infinitives). All of these serve as ways to connect one part with another grammatically and logically.

A long English sentence, simple or compound, complex or compound-complex, may be made complicated grammatically because of the following:

1. Compound or co-ordinate elements: co-ordinate subjects, verbs, objects, predicatives, object complements, attributes, and adverbials, etc.

2. Phrases or clauses used as modifiers: prepositional phrases, participial phrases, infinitival phrases, attributive clauses, and adverbial clauses, etc.

3. Phrases or clauses used as members of the sentence: prepositional phrases, participial phrases, infinitival phrases, gerundial phrases, verbal phrases, subject clauses, object clauses, and predicative clauses, etc.

3. Supplementary elements : appositives, parentheses, independent elements, and absolute constructions, etc.

4. Ellipsis

5. Inversion

6. Separation of one part from another by modifiers or supplementary elements in the sentence

Lets’ take some examples to analyze

1. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

分析: (1) 该句的主语为behaviorists,谓语为suggest,宾语为一个从句,因此整个句子为Behaviorist suggest that-clause 结构。(2) 该句共有五个谓语结构,它们的谓语动词分别为suggestis raisedaredevelopexperience等,这五个谓语结构之间的关系为: Behaviorist suggest that-clause 结构为主句; who is raised in an environment为定语从句,所修饰的先行词为child where there are many stimuli为定语从句,所修饰的先行词为environment which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses为定语从句,所修饰的先行词为stimuli suggest的宾语从句中,主语为child,谓语为experience,宾语为greater intellectual development.

在作了如上的分析之后,我们就会对该句具有了一个较为透彻的理解,然后根据我们上面所讲述的各种翻译方法,就可以把该句翻译成汉语为:

行为主义者认为,如果儿童的成长环境里有许多刺激因素,这些因素又有利于其适当反应能力的发展,那么,儿童的智力就会发展到较高的水平。

2. For a family of fourfor exampleit is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at homewith almost unlimited entertainment availablethan to go out in search of amusement elsewhere.

分析: (1) 该句的骨干结构为it is more … to do sth than to do sth else. 是一个比较结构,而且是在两个不定式之间进行比较。 (2) 该句中共有三个谓语结构,它们之间的关系为: it is more convenient as well as cheaper to … 为主体结构,但it是形式主语,真正的主语为第二个谓语结构: to sit comfortably at home,并与第三个谓语结构to go out in search of amusement elsewhere作比较。 (3) 句首的for a family of four作状语,表示条件。另外,还有两个介词短语作插入语: for examplewith almost unlimited entertainment available,其中第二个介词短语作伴随状语,修饰to sit comfortably at home.

综合上述翻译方法,这个句子我们可以翻译为:譬如,对于一个四口之家来说,舒舒服服地在家中看电视,就能看到几乎数不清的娱乐节目,这比到外面别的地方去消遣又便宜又方便。

14.2 Common Ways to Translate Long Sentences

     The following are the major steps to translate a long sentence:

     Step 1: Find out the basic pattern: SV, SVP, SVO, SVoO, SVOC?

     Step 2: Find out the subordination: modifier or modified?

     Step 3: Find out the meanings of words: meing in a given context?

     Step 4: Find out the grammatical relations: tense, aspect, voice, mood, etc.?

     Step 5: Find out the focus, temporal or logical sequences

     Step 6: (Re)arrange various parts according to Chinese ways of thinking and modes of expression

     Step 7: Revise, modify and polish the draft

14.2.1 Follow the Original Order

     Some of long English sentences follow the same temporal or logical sequence as Chinese. If so, maintain the original order in translation.

1. In Africa I met a boy, whocrying as if his heart would break, said, when I spoke to him , that  he w as hungry because he had had no food for two days.

在非洲, 我遇到一个小孩, 他哭得伤心极了, 我问他时, 他说他饿了两天没吃饭了。

2. Prior to the twentieth century, women in novels were stereotypes of lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the male-dominated culture.

20世纪以前, 小说中的妇女像都是一个模式。她们没有任何特点, 因而无法成为具有个性的人; 他们还要屈从于由男性主宰的文化传统强加给他们的种种束缚。

3. I consider a human soul without education, like marbles in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties, until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colors, makes the surface shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud spot and vein that runs through the body of it.

我认为一个没有受过教育的人, 他心灵犹如采石场上的大理石, 只有经能工巧匠雕琢研磨, 才能显出斑斓的色彩, 光洁的层面, 使其通体披上云纹、彩点和石理的盛装, 否则它那天生丽质便无法显现。

上例原文6 个小句基本上译成汉语的6 个小句。

4. Through this dark avenue I had a distant view of the cloister, with the figure of an old verger, in his black gown, moving along their shadowy vaults, and seeming like a specter from one of the neighboring tombs.

昏暗的走廊尽头,我远远地可以看见里面的回廊,一个老年修士身穿黑袍,正在阴影之中走过,看起来就像是附近坟墓里爬出来的鬼魂。

5. As for the unfortunate people who can command everything they want, who can gratify every caprice and lay their hands on almost every object of desire—for them a new pleasure, a new excitement is only an additional satiation.

至于那些不幸的人,他们拥有自己想要的一切,他们的任何奇想都能得到满足,并能得到他们渴望弄到手的每一件东西--对他们来说,新的乐趣、新的刺激只不过是再一次的厌腻。

14.2.2 Invert the Original Order

Long English sentences, simple or complicated, may not arrange themselves in the same temporal or logical sequence as Chinese. If so, we must invert, partly or completely, the word order of the original, often employing Division as well.

1. It therefore becomes more and more important that, if students are not to waste their opportunities, there will have to be much more detailed information about courses and more advice.

分析:该句由一个主句,一个条件状语从句和一个宾语从句组成,“……变得越来越重要是主句,也是全句的中心内容,全句共有三个谓语结构,包含三层含义:A. ……变的越来越重要;B. 如果要使学生充分利用他们的机会;C. 得为他们提供大量更为详尽的信息,作更多的指导。

为了使译文符合汉语的表达习惯,我们可采用逆序法,翻译成:因此,如果要使学生充分利用他们(上大学)的机会,就得为他们提供大量关于课程的更为详尽的信息,作更多的指导。这个问题显得越来越重要了。

2. Time goes fast for one who has a sense of beauty, when there are pretty children in a pool and a young Dianna on the edge, to receive with wonder anything you can catch!

分析:主句:Time goes fast; 2个定从:who has a…/ (anything) you can …1个时状从:when there are….

译文:--当你跟可爱的孩子们站在池子里,又有年轻的狄安娜在池边好奇地接受你捉上来的任何东西的时候,如果你懂得什么叫美的话,时间是过得很快的!

3. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herdsif it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.

假如没有那些以昆虫为食的动物保护我们,昆虫将吞噬我们所有的庄稼,害死我们的牛羊家畜,使我们不能生存于世。

4. Various machine parts  can be washed very clean and will be as clean as new ones when they are treated by ultrasonics, no matter how dirty and irregularly shaped they may be.

各种机器零件无论多么脏,形状多么不规则,当它们经超声波处理后,可以被洗得非常干净,甚至干净得像新零件一样。

5. They (the poor) are the first to experience technological progress as a curse which destroys the old muscle-power jobs that previous generations used as a means to fight their way out of poverty.

对于以往几代人来说,旧式的体力劳动是一种用以摆脱贫困的手段,而技术的进步则摧毁了穷人赖以为生的体力劳动,因此首先体验到技术进步之害的是穷人。

14.2.3 Split a Long Sentence into Shorter Parts or Sentences

Inversion often goes hand in hand with Division. In a long sentence the main clause and the subordinate clauses or modifiers may not be closely related. These are often split into several parts or sentences in translation.

1. The number of the young people in the United States who can’t read is incredible about one in four.

上句在英语中是一个相对简单的句子,但是如果我们按照原文的句子结构死译,就可能被翻译成:没有阅读能力的美国青年人的数目令人难以相信约为1/4

这样,就使得译文极为不通顺,不符合汉语的表达习惯,因此,我们应该把它译为:大约有1/4的美国青年人没有阅读能力,这简直令人难以置信。

2. He was wisely determined to give up smoking.

初译:他很明智地下决心戒烟了。(*

译文一:他很明智,下决心戒烟了。(状前)

译文二:他下决心戒烟了,这很明智。(状后)

3. The prisoners are permitted to receive Red Cross food parcels and write censored letters.

那些战俘得到允许,可以领取红十字会提供的食品包裹,也可以写信,不过所写信件要受检查。

4. Taking his cue from Ibsen’s A Doll’s Housein which the heroineNoraleaves home because she resents her husband’s treating her like a childthe writer Lu Xun warned that Nora would need money to support herselfshe must have economic rights to survive.

易卜生的剧作《玩偶之家》中的女主人公娜拉离家出走,因为她憎恶她的丈夫像对待孩子一样来对待她。作家鲁迅从中得到启示,从而告诫人们娜拉得需要钱来养活自己,她要生存就必须有经济上的权利。

5. Television, it is often said, keeps one informed about current events, allow one to follow the latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programs which are both instructive and entertaining.

分析:在此长句中,有一个插入语“it is often said”,三个并列的谓语结构,还有一个定语从句,其中三个并列的谓语结构尽管在结构上属于同一个句子,但都有独立的意义,因此在翻译时,可以采用分句法,按照汉语的习惯把整个句子分解成几个独立的分句,翻译成:人们常说,通过电视可以了解时事,掌握科学和政治的最新动态。从电视里还可以看到层出不穷、既有教育意义又有娱乐性的新节目。

6. Suddenly the door bursts and the Time Traveler appears, dirty, disheveled, and bed ragged, with a nasty cut on his chin.

突然,门开了,时间旅行者出现了。她全身肮脏,衣冠不整,满身是泥,下巴严重划伤。

分析:把形容词dirty, disheveled, bed ragged, 名词词组a nasty cut 分译成句子。

7. With his failures in life came the fears for the future.

他因生活屡遭失意,开始对前途忧心忡忡。

8. I wanted to laugh at their harmlessness.

他们无法作恶了,我真想放声大笑。

9. His failure to observe the safety regulations resulted in an accident to the machinery.

(初译:他在遵守安全规则方面的失败导致了机器出故障。)

 因为他没有遵守安全规则,机器出了故障。

14.2.4 Combined Use of Different Techniques

Some English sentences are hard to render into Chinese if only one of the above three strategies were employed singly. Thus, combining the three different techniques together on the basis of a good logical, spatial, and chronicle understanding of the sentence would help us tackle the problem and present native Chinese expressions.

1. Neither sorrow nor regret followed my passionate outburst.

我这样发作了一通以后, 既不难过, 也不后悔。

分析:这句译文无法保持原文的主谓搭配, 只好重新组织句子, 作主语, 将原句中作主语的抽象句词转成谓语。

2. People were afraid to leave their houses, for although the police had been ordered to stand by in case of emergency, they were just as confused and helpless as anybody else.

分析: 该句共有三层含义: A: 人们不敢出门;B: 尽管警察已接到命令,要作好准备以应付紧急情况;C: 警察也和其他人一样不知所措和无能为力。在这三层含义中,B表示让步,C表示原因,而A则表示结果。按照汉语习惯顺序,我们可将句子翻译为: 尽管警察已接到命令,要作好准备以应付紧急情况,但人们不敢出门,因为警察也和其他人一样不知所措和无能为力。

3. I visited the neighboring villages, and added greatly to my stock of knowledge, by noting their habit and customs, and conversing with their sages and great men….

我去过邻近村子,观察该地的风俗习惯,并与当地的圣贤和伟人交谈,极大地丰富了我的知识。

4. What has changed, many experts believe, is that Americans have grown more reluctant to cast stones at friends and neighbors who fail to meet the moral standards they set for themselves.

许多专家认为,与以前有所不同的是,美国人虽然为自己规定了道德准则,但是对于言行不符合这些准则的朋友或邻居,他们往往不愿进行谴责。

5. Towers, domes, … and arches have been formed over millions of years of weathering and erosion, and the process continues, constantly reshaping this fantastical rock garden.

历经数百万年的岁月沧桑,风化雨蚀,形成了山体奇特的地貌:高耸的巨塔、浑圆的穹丘……凌空而立的大拱门。大自然造物不尽,还在不断重塑着这奇岩妙石公园。

6. Decision must be made very rapidly; physical endurance is tested as much as perception, because an enormous amount of time must be spent making certain that the key figures act on the basis of the same information and purpose.

必须把大量时间花在确保关键人物均根据同一情报和目的行事,而这一切对身体的耐力和思维能力都是一大考验。因此,一旦考虑成熟,决策者就应迅速做出决策。

7. While the present century was in its teens, and on the sunshiny morning in June, there drove up to the great iron gate of Miss Pinkerton’s academy for young ladies, a large family coach, with two fat horses in blazing harness, driven by a fat coachman in a three-cornered hat and wig, at the rate of four miles an hour.

分析:主句+状语从句;主句较长,必须断句。“with…” “driven…”描述马车,“at…”为分句的修饰语。三个短语相对独立,可以分离出来。

这个世纪刚刚过了十几年。在六月的一天早上,天气晴朗,平克顿女子学校的大铁门前来了一辆宽敞的私人马车。拉车的两匹肥马套着雪亮的马具,一个肥胖的车夫戴了假发和三角帽子,赶车子的速度是一小时四英里。

14.3 Techniques in Long Sentence Translation

14.3.1 Adding Punctuation

1. In 1582 Richard Mulcaster, one of the earliest English grammarians, who paid attention to this problem, wrote the English tongue is of small reach, stretching no further than this land of ours.

1582年,理查德·迈克卡斯特——最早注意到这个问题的英语语法学家之一——写道:英语的流行范围很小,充其量是我们这个英格兰岛。

2. In the same village, and in one of these very houses (which, to tell you the precise truth, was sadly time-worn and weather-beaten), there lived many years since, while the country was yet a province of Great Britain, a simple good-natured fellow of the name of Rip Van Winkle.

许多年前,(那时这片土地还属于大不列颠),就在这同样的一座村庄里,就在这同样一一所房子里(说实话,这类房子因年久失修、风吹雨打而破烂不堪),一直住着一个淳朴善良的伙计,他叫瑞普· ·温克尔。

14.3.2 Changing the Order of Some Words

对原句的个别词或词组进行简单的移位调整,从而使译文更加符合汉语的规范。

1. Divorce is less culturally acceptable in a society that is family-oriented.

原译:在一个注重家庭的社会中,离婚并不普遍为人们在文化上所接受。

改译:在一个文化上注意家庭的社会里,离婚总使人们觉得不太好接受。

2. For most Tokyo people the advantages of their town until recently outweighed the disadvantages.

初译:绝大多数东京人直到前不久为止还认为,东京的有利条件多于不利条件。

改译:直到前不久为止,绝大多数东京人还认为东京的有利条件多于不利条件。

14.3.3 Translate Words into Sentence

1. A mix of arrogance and continued fear of Iraqi intentions colors Kuwaiti reactions of no fly zones.

分析:arrogance在此显然是指科威特人的傲慢,变词为句成为科威特人很傲慢,再我依据整个句子的含意,特别是考虑到 a mix of …的含意,可以添加几个字一方面

科威特人一方面很傲慢自负,另一方面又对伊拉克的企图继续怀有恐惧。这种复杂因素左右着科威特人对设置禁飞区的态度。

译文虽然表面上字数增加不少,实际倒是最大可能地照顾到了译文对于原文的忠实与顺畅。

2. Established in 1960s when federal money flowed, the clinics are now a shadow of their former selves. Patients wait hours while the undermanned and sometimes short-tempered staff struggle to meet the demand.

分析:划线部分是个名词词组,翻译时需要变词为句

这些联邦政府在60年代大量拨款建立起来的诊所,现在已经衰败不堪了。病人就诊要等很长时间,医务人员配备不足,只能穷于应付,有时还向病人发脾气。

14.3.4 Restructuring

大幅度对打乱英语原句的词序和各种成分的排列,然后对其进行重新组装。

1. He always lived ahead of his salary.

他总是生活在他的工资之前。(×

分析:按原句硬译,成了一句不得要领、让人无法理解的外国话

译文:他的生活开销总是超过他的工资收入。

译文与原句的结构和词序完全不一样,甚至连词义也很难对应,但却完全达到了”“兼备。

2. I have never outgrown my delight in movies; I am there for every good movie.

初译:我从未超过我在电影方面的爱好,每有一部好电影我都在那里。

改译:我看电影的兴致就从未减过,只要有好片子,我都去看。

3. What should doctor say, for example, to a 46-year-old man coming in for a routine physical check-up just before going on vacation with his family who though he feels in perfect health, is found to have a form of cancer that will cause him to die within six month?

举例说吧,一个46岁的男子,在与家人外出度假之前进行常规体检;虽然他自我感觉良好,但医生发现他患了某种癌症,六个月内就会死死去。在这种情况下,医生该怎样跟他讲呢?

14.4 Conclusion

求同存异,“得意忘形

从以上分述可以看出, 翻译方法分得这么细并没有多大的实用价值, 反而让人把精力过多地花在分辨各方法间的差别上, 而且各方法间也有重叠之处, 这更易使人糊涂。

实际上最重要的还是理解, 得意。理解原句中各部分间的语法关系, 时间先后, 逻辑顺序, 轻重主次, 然后不拘泥英文形式即忘形”,但保留或保存原文中所要表达的意义和思维, 求同”, 按汉语句子特点表达出来, 存异

所以英语长句的翻译和英语其它句式一样, 都必须遵循翻译的基本原理和技巧, 只是在处理英文长句时应特别注意原文中主从句之间, 主句与修饰语之间的时间关系, 空间关系, 动作先后, 逻辑顺序,含义轻重主次, 在理解和表达的两过程中熟谙两种语言的句法特点,“求同存异, 得意忘形

译文赏析

1. Rich choice tobaccos plus modern filter make Peter Stuyvesant the international passport to smoking pleasure.

P. S 香烟选料上乘,芳香浓郁,并装有新潮过滤嘴。有了它,走遍天下,您都能吞云吐雾,快活不已。

分析:译文可谓发挥得酣畅淋漓,但却不出格。

2. 以下是国泰航空公司的一则广告:

We take much pride in our ultra-modern aircraft as we do in our old-fashioned ideas about service.

古朴的服务传统,最新的飞机设施

国泰航空,引以自豪

分析:译者完全抛开原文句型的束缚,紧紧抓住这句话的要领,在有限度的柜架内构思一个从语义到形式都可与原文相匹配的译文。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture 15 Comprehensive Application of Major Techniques in E-C Translation

Passage 1

On my last holiday in the Bahamas, as I walked along the beach feeling the gentle waves wash over my feet, I felt part of universe, even if only a minuscule one, like a grain of sand on the beach.

Although I had to restrict the size of my practice, I felt a closer empathy with my patients.

When I walked into the Intensive Care Unit there was an awesome feeling knowing I, too,
had been a patient there.

It was a special satisfaction to comfort my patients with cancer, knowing that it is possible to enjoy life after the anguish of that diagnosis.

It gave me a feeling to see the sparkle in one patient's eyes-a man with a total laryngectomy-when I asked if he would enjoy a cold beer and went to get him one.

If one realizes that our time on this earth is but a tiny fraction of that within the cosmos, then life calculated in years may not be as important as we think.

Why measure life in heartbeats?

When life is dependent on such an unreliable function as the beating of the heart, then it is fragile indeed.

The only thing that one can depend upon with absolute certainty is death.

①上次到巴哈马度假期间,我沿着海滩漫步,海浪轻轻抚揉着我的双脚,此时此刻,我蓦然觉得自己与整个宇宙融为一体,尽管我显得微不足道,就像海滩上的一粒沙子。

②虽然我不得不限制自己的医务工作量,但我感到与病人更加心灵相通。

③当我走进特别护理室时,一种敬畏之感油然而生,因为我知道自己也曾是这里的病人。

④我明白,在经历了被确诊为癌症的极度痛苦之后,仍有可能享受人生,因此,安慰癌症患者是我最大的快乐。

⑤一位病人做了喉切除手术,我问他是否想喝冻啤酒,而且为他拿来了一杯,这时我看到他眼里闪耀着感激的神情,一股暖流顿时涌上我的心头。

⑥倘若人们意识到人的一生只不过是宇宙的时间长河中转瞬即逝的一刹那,那么以岁月计算的生命就不会像我们所想象的那样重要了。

⑦何必以心跳来定生死呢?

⑧当生命依赖于心跳这样一种不可靠的功能时,它的确脆弱不堪。

⑨而只有死亡才是人们唯一可以绝对依赖的。(许建平<英汉互译实践与技巧>清华大学出版社)

[分析]

本文主要涉及视角转换(shift of perspective),增词(amplification),和意合(parataxis)等翻译技巧。具体分析如下:

意合:英文形合的一个复合句翻译成中文意合的七个散句。

视角转换:词性的转换,介词转换成动词""

切分:“I walked along the beach feeling the gentle waves wash over my feet” 在译文中分成两个句子。

增词:增加 此时此刻

视角转换:由肯定 “had to”转换成否定形式 不得不

形合:译文中仍为由虽然和但是这一组转折连词连接。

视角转换:knowing I, too, had been a patient there这一分词短语转换成由 因为引导的原因状语从句

视角转换:句序调整

增词:增加连词  “因此

切分:knowing that it is possible to enjoy life after the anguish of that diagnosis这一分词短语切分成译文中的三个分句。

意合

视角转换:句序调整;词性转换,名词sparkle 转换成动词 闪耀着

切分:It gave me a feeling to see the sparkle in one patient’s eyes分成译文中的两个分句。

增词:增加 感激的神情顿时等。

形合:译文仍由 倘若 那么这一组条件状语从句连词连接。

增词:增加语气助词

视角转换:词性转换,形容词is dependent on转换成动词 依赖于

省词:省略thing

 

Passage 2

英文原文:

1Someone once remarked that the British and the Americans are two peoples separated by the same language.

2Most epigrams exaggerate for effect, and this one is no exception.

3But it is, nevertheless, undeniably true that some commonly used words mean different things in these two cultures.

4Consider the seemingly single term-”the government.”

5To parliamentarians trained in British terminology, “the government” means “the cabinet: a group of the legislature’s own members, chosen by it to devise public policies, to manage the legislature’s major activities, and to exercise executive powers.

6In theory, at least, the government continues office only so long as it commands the support of a majority of the legislature.

7Losing that support, it may be turned out of power at almost any moment.

8When Americans say “the government,” they mean something quite different: it connotes the whole governmental structure-executive, legislative and judicial.

9Americans assume a situation in which the branches of government are deliberately separated and in which the powers of each check and balance those of the other.

(李运兴编著英汉语篇翻译,清华大学出版社,1998

中文译文:

1)有人曾说,英国人和美国人是被同一种语言分隔开的两个民族。

2)警句为求效果大多过于夸张,上述警句也不例外。

3)尽管如此,在这两种文化中,一些常用词汇表达了不同的事物,这一点却是千真万确的。

4)让我们看看一个貌似简单的词-”政府

5)对于那些受英国术语熏陶的议员们,政府指的是内阁,是立法机构本身的一批成员,由立法机构任命来制订公共政策,处理议会的重大活动并行使行政权力。

6)政府只有赢得议会多数成员的支持,才可以继续执政,至少在理论上是这样。

7)失去了多数支持,政府几乎随时有可能下台。

8)美国人说到政府,意思就完全不同了。它指的是整个政体,包括行政、立法和司法部门。

9)按照美国人的做法,政府三大部门是有意识地分立的,每个部门与其他部门相互制衡。

(注:上述译文有所改动)

分析:这段文字主要用了切分(division)等翻译技巧,此外,还用了一些其它技巧。

Someone once remarked that the British and the Americans are two peoples separated by the same language.